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Based on comments on this question:

Is there any written evidence - from a reliable source - that one may daven for a חוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה - someone not deathly ill - on Shabbat.

Classic Halacha states that one may only daven for people who are deathly ill on Shabbat. E.g. The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch in 192:2 - סימן קצב - דין החולה והרופא - states:

גַּם נוֹהֲגִין לְבָרֵךְ אֶת הַחוֹלִים בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת. וְאִם הוּא מְסֻכָּן, מְבָרְכִין אוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב. ‏

The custom is to bless the ill people in shul. And if he's in danger (i.e. deathly ill) then one even blesses them [in shul] on Shabbat or Yom Tov.

The Shulchan Aruch clearly forbids one to say the classic רְפוּאָה שְׁלֵמָה on Shabbat, even in private. Orach Chaim 287 - סימן רפז - נחום אבלים ובקור חולים בשבת - states:

סימן רפז - נחום אבלים ובקור חולים בשבת
ובו סעיף אחד
א יְכוֹלִים לְנַחֵם אֲבֵלִים בְּשַׁבָּת, וְכֵן יְכוֹלִים לְבַקֵּר אֶת הַחוֹלֶה. וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ כַּדֶּרֶךְ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ בַּחֹל, אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ: שַׁבָּת הִיא מִלִּזְעֹק וּרְפוּאָה קְרוֹבָה לָבֹא, וְרַחֲמָיו מְרֻבִּים וְשִׁבְתּוֹ בְּשָׁלוֹם. הגה: וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים דְּאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר וְרַחֲמָיו מְרֻבִּים, וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ (רַמְבַּ''ם פֶּרֶק כ''ד).

One may comfort mourners and visit the sick on Shabbat, but one doesn't say to him (רְפוּאָה שְׁלֵמָה) as one says during the week, but rather "Shabbat is not a time to daven, healing should be soon, His mercy is great. Have a peaceful Shabbat."
Rema: The custom is not to include the words "His mercy is great".

Is there any source for the popular custom of blessing a long list of people on Shabbat; some of whom are recuperating, convalescing or in bad health, but are nowhere near deathly ill, (thank Gcd)?

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R' Binyamin Shlomo Hamburger wrote an extensive and thorough survey of the issue of praying for the ill on Shabbat in Chitzei Gibborim vol. 6 including his characteristic historical geographic breakdown of the positions and a survey of texts in historical Siddurim. You can find all the sources you want in that article, including discussion of the various leniencies that have been suggested throughout the ages.

One famous later authority who struggled with the issue is the Magen Avraham at the end of OC 288, who proposes that the custom is relying on a minority opinion in Rishonim that simply/concisely phrased prayers are permitted (à la R Yossi, Shabbat 12b). As you note though, especially among Ashkenazi authorities, the simplest read of the vast majority of sources clearly prohibits it. Even the Arukh haShulchan, who is known for defending local customs, writes (287:2) "I don't know who permitted this for them" and offers no further defense.

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