In the season of my birthday, I was wondering:

Which figures, from Tanach and Sha"s, do we know the exact birthday of? I am aware of Moshe's birthday being identified as the 7th of Adar. Which other figures have known birthdays?

I am specifically and only interested in knowing which figures have birthdays that are documented in Jewish sources.

I am more interested in those sources which explicitly identify a birthday, but am also interested in sources which figure out an exact date based on analysis of sources.

  • I think I did a poor job of tagging. Any tagging improvements are invited. Jan 21, 2018 at 20:45
  • You're a week early
    – Double AA
    Jan 21, 2018 at 20:48
  • As I mentioned in my answer to "When is Avraham Avinu's Yahrzeit", starting on Rosh ha-Shanah 10a there is a Machaloqet between R. Eli'ezer and R. Yehoshu'a over what month, amongst other events, the Avot were born in (Tisrei vs. Nisan), but they don't give an exact date.
    – Tamir Evan
    Jan 21, 2018 at 21:23
  • Oh, wait, both seem to agree Yitzchaq was born on Pesach.
    – Tamir Evan
    Jan 21, 2018 at 21:27
  • 1
    Adam = 1 Tishrei
    – Loewian
    Jan 21, 2018 at 22:13

2 Answers 2

  • According to Qidushin 38a, Moshe Rabbeinu was born (and died) on the seventh of Adar:

    תניא אידך בשבעה באדר מת משה ובשבעה באדר נולד.‏

    מנין שבשבעה באדר מת? שנאמר "וימת שם משה עבד ה'", וכתיב "ויבכו בני ישראל את משה בערבות מואב שלשים יום", וכתיב "ויהי אחרי מות משה עבד ה'", וכתיב "משה עבדי מת ועתה קום עבור", וכתיב "עברו בקרב המחנה וצוו את העם לאמר הכינו לכם צידה כי בעוד שלשת ימים תעברו את הירדן", וכתיב "והעם עלו מן הירדן בעשור לחדש הראשון". צא מהן שלשים ושלשה ימים למפרע. הא למדת, שבשבעה באדר מת משה.‏

    ומנין שבשבעה באדר נולד משה? שנאמר "ויאמר אליהם בן מאה ועשרים שנה אנכי היום לא אוכל עוד לצאת ולבא" שאין ת"ל 'היום'. מה ת"ל 'היום'? מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וממלא שנותיהם של צדיקים מיום ליום ומחדש לחדש, שנאמר "את מספר ימיך אמלא".‏

    In the Soncino translation (available in PDF from halakhah.com):

    Another [Baraitha] taught: On the seventh of Adar Moses died, and on the seventh of Adar he was born.

    How do we know that he died on the seventh of Adar? For it
    is written:

    • [i] "So Moses the servant of the Lord died there"; (Deut. XXXIV, 5)
    • [ii] "And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days"; (Ibid. 8)
    • [iii] "Moses thy servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over [this Jordan]"; (Josh. I, 2)
    • [iv] "Pass through the midst of the camp, and command the people, saying: Prepare you victuals; for within three days ye are to pass over this Jordan"; (Ibid, 11)


    • [v] "and the people came up out of Jordan on the tenth day of the first month"; (Ibid. IV, 19)

    deduct the preceding thirty three days, thus you learn that Moses died on the seventh of Adar.

    And how do we know that he was born on the seventh of Adar? — For it is said (Deut. XXXI, 2): "And he [Moses] said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in". Now, ‘this day’ need not be stated; why then is it stated? It teaches that the Holy One, blessed be He, sits and completes the years of the righteous [exactly] from day to day and month to month, as it is said (Ex. XXIII, 26): "the number of thy days I will fulfill".

    According to Yalkut Shimoni on the Nach, Remez 15 (on Yehoshua 5), the aforementioned is in line with the opinions of R. Yehosu'a and R. El'azar ha-Moda'i, with R. Eli'ezer saying Moshe died (and presumably was born) on the seventh of Shevat:

    דבר אחר:‏

    מה תלמוד לומר ובני ישראל אכלו את המן ארבעים שנה, והלא חסרים שלשים יום מחמשה עשר בניסן עד ששה עשר באייר? אלא שאכלו עוגות מצות שהוציאו בידן ממצרים, שהיו יפות להם כמן.‏

    תניא, רבי יהושע אומר: ארבעים יום אכלו ישראל את המן אחר מיתתו של משה.‏

    כיצד? בשבעה באדר מת משה, ואכלו ממנו ארבעה ועשרים של אדר, וששה עשר של ניסן, שנאמר: וישבות המן ממחרת.‏

    רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר: שבעים יום.‏

    כיצד? מת משה בשבעה באדר, ואכלו ממנו ארבעה ועשרים של אדר, ראשון ושלשים של אדר שני, ששנת עיבור היה, וששה עשר של ניסן.‏

    ר' אליעזר אומר: שבעים יום. בשבעה בשבט מת משה, ואכלו ממנו כ"ד של שבט, ושלשים של אדר, וששה עשר של ניסן, ואותה שנה לא הייתה מעוברת.‏

  • In Rosh ha-Shanah 10b-11a, although there is a Machaloqet between R. Eli'ezer and R. Yehoshu'a over when certain events took place, both agree Yizchaq Avinu was born on Pesach:

    תניא רבי אליעזר אומר בתשרי נברא העולם בתשרי נולדו אבות בתשרי מתו אבות בפסח נולד יצחק בראש השנה נפקדה שרה רחל וחנה בראש השנה יצא יוסף מבית האסורין בר"ה בטלה עבודה מאבותינו במצרים בניסן נגאלו בתשרי עתידין ליגאל

    ר' יהושע אומר בניסן נברא העולם בניסן נולדו אבות בניסן מתו אבות בפסח נולד יצחק בר"ה נפקדה שרה רחל וחנה בר"ה יצא יוסף מבית האסורין בר"ה בטלה עבודה מאבותינו במצרים בניסן נגאלו בניסן עתידין ליגאל


    בפסח נולד יצחק מנלן? כדכתיב "למועד אשוב אליך" אימת קאי? אילימא בפסח, וקאמר ליה בעצרת, בחמשין יומין מי קא ילדה? אלא דקאי בעצרת, וקאמר ליה בתשרי, אכתי בחמשה ירחי מי קא ילדה? אלא, דקאי בחג, וקאמר לה בניסן. אכתי בשיתא ירחי מי קא ילדה? תנא אותה שנה מעוברת היתה. סוף סוף כי מדלי מר יומי טומאה בצרי להו? אמר מר זוטרא: אפילו למ"ד יולדת לתשעה אינה יולדת למקוטעין, יולדת לשבעה יולדת למקוטעין, שנאמר "ויהי לתקופות הימים" מיעוט תקופות שתים, ומיעוט ימים שנים

    In the Soncino translation(available in PDF from halakhah.com):

    It has been taught: R. Eliezer says: In Tishri the world was created; in Tishri the Patriarchs were born; in Tishri the Patriarchs died; on Passover Isaac was born; on New Year Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited; on New Year Joseph went forth from prison; on New Year the bondage of our ancestors in Egypt ceased; in Nisan they were redeemed and in Nisan they will be redeemed in the time to come.

    R. Joshua says: In Nisan the world was created; in Nisan the Patriarchs were born; in Nisan the Patriarchs died; on Passover Isaac was born; on New Year Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited; on New Year Joseph went forth from prison; on New Year the bondage of our ancestors ceased in Egypt; and in Nisan they will be redeemed in time to come.


    Whence do we know that Isaac was born on Passover? — Because it is written (Gen. XVIII, 14), "On the [next] festival (למועד) I will return unto thee". Now when was he [the angel] speaking? Shall I say [he was speaking] on Passover and referring to Pentecost? Could she bear in fifty days? Shall I say then that [he was speaking on] Pentecost and was referring to Tishri? Even in five months could she bear?I must suppose then that he was speaking on Tabernacles and referring to Passover. Even so, could she bear in six months? — It has been taught that that year was a leap year. All the same, if the Master deducts the days of uncleanness, the time is too short? — Mar Zutra replied: Even those who hold that when a woman bears at nine months she does not give birth before the month is complete admit that if she bears at seven months she can give birth before the month is complete, as it says (I Sam. I, 20), "And it came to pass after the cycle of days"; the minimum of cycles is two, and the minimum of days is two.

  • Which day of passover? Jan 22, 2018 at 14:23
  • @רבותמחשבות Good question. From the supporting argument I brought, it could be any of them. This does, of course, minimize the exactness of the birth date. Should I remove it? Is it good enough?
    – Tamir Evan
    Jan 22, 2018 at 14:35
  • Seeing your thoroughness, re. Isaac's birthday, I'd add to see Tos. (s.v. אלא) to RH and the midrashic references cited. Additionally, may as will add that Jubilees (16:13) records that he was born on the 15th of Sivan.
    – Oliver
    Jan 22, 2018 at 17:15
  • @Oliver The Tosafot you cite seems to have a lot more than I could hope to incorporate into my answer, but I may include some of the sources it brings. Regarding the book of Jubilees, I'm leery of using it as a Jewish source, in spite the relatively warm reviews in the MY link you bring.
    – Tamir Evan
    Jan 22, 2018 at 17:30

In the Cairo Genizah a fragment of a midrash was discovered that, among other things, lists the birthdays of the shevatim. Ezra Chwat from the National Library of Israel transcribed the midrash and added footnotes comparing other sources (can be found here):

Reuven - 14th to the 9th month - 14th of Kislev

Shimon - 21st to the 10th month (28th according to Yalkut Shimoni) - 21st/28th of Tevet

Levi - 1st to the 1st month (16th of Nissan according to Seder Hadorot) - 1st/16th of Nissan

Dan - 29th to the 6th month (9th of Elul according to Seder Hadorot) - 29th/9th of Elul

Yehudah - 15th to the 3rd month - 15th of Sivan

Naftali - 5th to the 7th month - 5th of Tishrei

Gad - 9th to the 8th month (10th of Cheshvan according to Seder Hadorot) - 9th/10th of Cheshvan

Yissachar - 14th to the 5th month (10th of Av according to Seder Hadorot) - 14th/10th of Av

Asher - 2nd of Shevat (unique among the other dates to being the only month listed by name and not number) (20th of Shevat according to Seder Hadorot and 22nd of Shevat according to Shalshelet Hakabbalah) - 2nd/20th/22nd of Shevat

Yosef - 21st to the 4th month (27th of Tammuz according to Shalshelet Hakabbalah) - 21st/27th of Tammuz

Zevulun - 7th to the 7th month - 7th of Tishrei

Binyamin - 11th to the 8th month (which is also the day Rachel died) - 11th of Cheshvan

  • 1
    Probably sourced (ultimately) from Sefer HaYovelim. See parsha.blogspot.com/2011/11/…
    – Joel K
    Oct 19, 2020 at 9:57
  • 1
    These don't all tally with the dates listed in Seder HaDoros?
    – Dov
    Oct 19, 2020 at 9:58
  • @Dov not all, but good point, I'll add the differences.
    – Harel13
    Oct 19, 2020 at 10:50

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