The priests in the temple dressed very specifically, i.e. with a golden belt around the chest and a very high hat. Why? What does the talmud say about that and where can i find that information?
this might be a partial answer
Exodus 28 2:
...for dignity and adornment.
The tunic procures atonement for bloodshed, as it is written: And they dipped the coat in the blood.16 The breeches procure atonement for incest, as it is written: And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover the flesh of their nakedness.17 The mitre procures atonement for those of arrogant mind, in accord with what R. Hanina taught; for he said: Let that which is [placed] high procure atonement for acts of haughtiness. The girdle procures atonement for sinful thoughts of the heart, [for it atones] where it is [worn].18 The breastplate procures atonement for [error in] legal decisions, as it is written: And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment.19 The ephod procures atonement for idolatry, as it is written: And without ephod or teraphim.20 The robe procures atonement for slander, for the Holy One, blessed be He, said: Let that which emits a sound,21 procure atonement for an act of sound [the voice]. The [golden] plate procures atonement for impudent deeds, for there it is written: And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead,22 and it is written there: Yet thou hadst a harlot's forehead!23 — This is no contradiction: The one results when his actions were effective, the other when they were not effective. If his acts were effective, the plague of leprosy visits him, if his actions were not effective, the robe procures atonement.24
(16) Gen. XXXVII, 31. A hint that the coat covers (as it was covered by) blood.
(17) Ex. XXVIII, 42.
(18) The girdle was supposed to have been wide enough to cover his heart.
(19) Ex. XXVIII, 15. ‘Of’ equivalent for ‘error in’ judgment.
(20) Hosea III, 4, interpreting thus: ‘Because there was no ephod. there were teraphim (idols).
(21) Ex. XXVIII, 33. The robe had small bells on its hem so that one might hear the approach of the high priest. Slander. too, is audible.
(22) Ex. XXVIII, 38.
(23) Jer. III, 3. The argument is from analogy of phrase.
(24) According to the reaching above, slander is visited by plagues. whereas now we are taught that the priestly robe procures atonement for it
Zevachim 88b (see there):
R. ‘Inyani b. Sason also said: Why are the sections on sacrifices and the priestly vestments close together?9 To teach you: as sacrifices make atonement, so do the priestly vestments make atonement. The coat atones for bloodshed, for it is said, And they killed a he-goat, and dipped the coat in the blood.10 The breeches atoned for lewdness, as it is said, And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover the flesh of their nakedness.11 The mitre made atonement for arrogance. How do we know it? — Said R. Hanina: Let an article placed high up12 come and atone for an offence of hauteur. The girdle atoned for [impure] meditations of the heart, i.e., where it was placed.13 The breastplate atoned for [neglect of] civil laws, as it is said, And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment.14 The ephod atoned for idolatry, as it is said, Without ephod there are teraphim.15 The robe atoned for slander. How do we know it? — Said R. Hanina: Let an article of sound16 come and atone for an offence of sound. The headplate atoned for brazenness: of the headplate it is written, And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead,17 whilst of brazenness it is written, Yet thou hadst a harlot's forehead.18
(9) Immediately after discussing the burnt-offering, meal-offering, sin-offering, and peace-offerings (Lev. VII), Scripture speaks of the priestly garments (VIII, 1 seq.)
(10) Gen. XXXVII, 31. This was a sign that later the coat would make atonement, even as dipping (Heb. tebillah, in later Hebrew denoting ritual immersion for purification) symbolised atonement.
(11) Ex. XXVIII, 42.
(12) On top of the head.
(13) It was placed at the level of the heart.
(14) Ibid., 15.
(15) Hos. III, 4. Where there is no ephod, there is the unatoned-for sin of teraphim (idols). — E.V.: without ephod or teraphim.
(16) Sc. the robe, which was fringed with bells.
(17) Ex. XXVIII, 38.
(18) Jer. III, 3.
for laws regarding them see Mishneh Torah » Sefer Avodah » Klei Hamikdash - Chapter 8