I'm aware of the midrash regarding Psalm 92 (mizmor shir l'yom hashabat) and Adam's repentance. Was the first Shabbat spent in Gan Eden, then, as only then was Adam expelled?
According to Rabbi Yochanan bar Chanina (Sanhedrin 38b):
א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר אדם ביקר בל ילין
There are twelve hours in the day. In the first hour his dust was gathered, in the second he was made into a form, in the third his limbs were stretched, in the fourth his soul was thrown into him, in the fifth he stood on his feet, in the sixth he called (the animals) names, in the seventh Eve was matched with him, in the eighth two went to bed and four came out (Cain and Abel were born, or Cain and his female twin), in the ninth he was commanded not to eat from the tree, in the tenth he sinned, in the eleventh he was judged, in the twelfth he was expelled and went, because it says (Psalms 49:13) "Adam didn't sleep (overnight) in greatness."
According to this gemara, Adam was expelled from the garden in the twelfth hour of Friday, and thus didn't celebrate the first Shabbat in the Garden of Eden.
Midrash Rabbah Bereshit 11:2 says that G-d let Adam stay in Gan Eden for Shabbat, and only kicked him out after Shabbat was over.
Pirkei D'Rebbi Eliezer (chapter 20) says that G-d sent him right outside of Gan Eden (to Mount Moriah) before Shabbat, and the Shabbat protected him until Shabbat was over.