I'm aware of the midrash regarding Psalm 92 (mizmor shir l'yom hashabat) and Adam's repentance. Was the first Shabbat spent in Gan Eden, then, as only then was Adam expelled?

  • thank you, but I don't see the reference there on the daf...could you quote it for me?
    – eliezerb
    Commented Dec 31, 2017 at 19:18
  • 1
    Consider clarifying what the Midrash regarding Psalms 92 is.
    – mevaqesh
    Commented Dec 31, 2017 at 22:19
  • Probably. The Sabbath was instituted when God created the Earth. It really depends on how long Adam was in the garden of Eden. If it was less than 1 week then maybe not but he was still required after being expelled. But if he was there more than 1 week then yes he would have most certainly honored the first Sabbath in the garden of Eden.
    – user16446
    Commented Jan 1, 2018 at 1:13

4 Answers 4


According to Rabbi Yochanan bar Chanina (Sanhedrin 38b):

א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר אדם ביקר בל ילין

There are twelve hours in the day. In the first hour his dust was gathered, in the second he was made into a form, in the third his limbs were stretched, in the fourth his soul was thrown into him, in the fifth he stood on his feet, in the sixth he called (the animals) names, in the seventh Eve was matched with him, in the eighth two went to bed and four came out (Cain and Abel were born, or Cain and his female twin), in the ninth he was commanded not to eat from the tree, in the tenth he sinned, in the eleventh he was judged, in the twelfth he was expelled and went, because it says (Psalms 49:13) "Adam didn't sleep (overnight) in greatness."

According to this gemara, Adam was expelled from the garden in the twelfth hour of Friday, and thus didn't celebrate the first Shabbat in the Garden of Eden.

  • 2
    thank you! as a secondary point, did Kayin also sin/repent before Shabbat, as the midrash says that Adam learned Mizmor Shir l'yom Hashabat from the Teshuva of Kayin?
    – eliezerb
    Commented Dec 31, 2017 at 20:18
  • 1
    @eliezerb If there is a source, I don't know it. I looked at Midrash Tehilim (92) but it doesn't say when Cain sinned; it only says that he met Adam and told him about his repentance on Shabbat.
    – b a
    Commented Dec 31, 2017 at 20:36
  • hmmm, I really doubt it only took the woman a few days to commit the first sin. I was under the impression adam and eve were in the garden of eden for awhile before the first sin.
    – user16446
    Commented Jan 1, 2018 at 1:14

Midrash Rabbah Bereshit 11:2 says that G-d let Adam stay in Gan Eden for Shabbat, and only kicked him out after Shabbat was over.

Pirkei D'Rebbi Eliezer (chapter 20) says that G-d sent him right outside of Gan Eden (to Mount Moriah) before Shabbat, and the Shabbat protected him until Shabbat was over.


In addition to the answers above, refer to the Midrash Shocher Tov 92:2 that notes he was expelled but spared from Gehinom for the sake of the Shabbos:

כיצד את מוצא בערב שבת נברא אדם הראשון. שעה ראשונה עלה במחשבה. שניה נמלך עם מלאכי השרת. שלישית כנס עפרו. ברביעית גבלו. חמישית עשאו גולם. ששית רקמו. שביעית נפח בו נשמה. שמינית העמידו על רגליו. תשיעית צוהו. עשירית חטא. אחת עשרה נידון. שתים עשרה נתגרש. בא ליתן לו איפופסין נכנס השבת פינהו משם והיו מלאכי השרת קוראין לו (תהלים מט יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין נמשל כבהמות נדמו. נדמו שניהם. בא יום שבת נעשה לו סניגור ואמר לפני הקב"ה רבון העולמים בששת ימי המעשה לא נענש אדם בעולם ובי אתה מתחיל זו היא קדושתי וזו היא מנוחתי. ובשביל השבת ניצל מדינה של גהינם. כיון שראה אדם כחה של שבת בא אדם לומר הימנון לשבת מזמור שיר ליום השבת. אמר לו השבת לי אתה אומר הימנון אני ואתה נאמר הימנון להקב"ה שנאמר טוב להודות לה

How was Adam, the first man, created on Friday? In the first hour, he was formed in the mind. In the second hour, he was molded with the ministering angels. In the third hour, his dust was gathered. In the fourth hour, his limbs were formed. In the fifth hour, a golem was created. In the sixth hour, he was clothed with skin. In the seventh hour, his soul was breathed into him. In the eighth hour, he stood on his feet. In the ninth hour, he was commanded. In the tenth hour, he sinned. In the eleventh hour, he was judged. In the twelfth hour, he was expelled. When he came to offer supplications, the Sabbath intervened and removed him. The ministering angels then called out to him (Psalm 49:13), "A man who is in honor, yet does not understand, is like the beasts that perish." Both were alike in their appearance. When the Sabbath arrived, it acted as an advocate for him and said before the Holy One, blessed be He, "Master of the Universe, during the six days of creation, Adam was not punished in the world, but for me he sinned and was punished. This is my holiness and this is my rest." And for the sake of the Sabbath, he was saved from the punishment of hell. Once a person saw the power of the Sabbath, he came to say a hymn for the Sabbath, a song for the Sabbath day. The Sabbath said to him, "You say a hymn for me, and you and I will say a hymn to the Lord," as it is written, "It is good to give thanks to the Lord." (Sefaria translation)


Adam was created on the sixth day with woman, therefor adam was put to sleep on day sixth and God made woman. Adam continued his rest during the sabbath, and rose up on the first day to marry his woman.

  • Hi Daniel. How do you know this?
    – Double AA
    Commented Jul 2, 2019 at 0:20
  • Based on the discussion of aitz hadaas, and the idea that had he waited until after shabbos to eat, Chava gave him the fruit on the sixth day. Commented Jul 2, 2019 at 0:45
  • @sabbahillel According to the Talmud (Sanhedrin 38b) (cited in ba's answer), the timeline was that they were wedded at the 7th hour of the 6th day, and they ate from the forbidden fruit on the 10th hour. Commented Jul 2, 2019 at 15:15
  • @IsraelReader That is what I said. I just did not give the hour. I just noticed that I left out a few words. I meant to say that had he waited until after Shabbos, he would have been allowed to eat from it. Commented Jul 3, 2019 at 0:31
  • @sabbahillel You are correct. The main objection with the posted answer, is the departure from the Talmudic tradition, and the insistence that Adam married Eve on the following Sunday. Commented Jul 3, 2019 at 15:47

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