I would like to know the origin of the names for the various cantillation marks, understanding that there are different names for different notes
The names most often have to do with the melodies they make, secondarily with their grammatical functions, and thirdly with their visual appearance.
Examples of Names having to do with Melody:
- Athnah - Rest
- Tarha - Dragging
- Geirish - Expel
- Tevir - Break
- Zarqa - Scatter
Examples of Names having to do with Grammatical Function
- Athnahta - Rest
- Sof Pasuq - End of a verse
- Qadma - To progress/Advance
Examples of Names having to do with Visual Appearance
- Zaqeif Qaton - Little Upright/Stander.
- Zaqeif Gadol - Big Upright/Stander
- Qarne Farah - Horns of a Cow
- Shofar Holekh - Walking Horn
- Shofar Mehuppakh - Reverse Horn
The names are almost exclusively in Aramaic, and not in Hebrew. A lot of Ashkenazim mistakenly call the symbol above this letter ב֗ Revi'i out of the misplaced notion that the word is Hebrew and therefore means 4th. It's Aramaic, meaning to crouch or descend, which explains the melodic fall of the revi'a. The names used to show a lot more similarities in the different traditions until corruptions started creeping in. Here is a photo from the 1850 Torah Ohr showing the similarity between names.