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אַבַּיֵּי הֲוָה מְסַדֵּר סֵדֶר הַמַּעֲרָכָה מִשְּׁמָא דִגְמָרָא,... וְאֵבָרִים לְמִנְחָה, וּמִנְחָה לַחֲבִתִּין, וַחֲבִתִּין לִנְסָכִין, וּנְסָכִין לְמוּסָפִין, וּמוּסָפִין לְבָזִיכִין, . ‏

Source 1 (from sefaria) implies the Mussaf sacrifice is after Mincha.

Source 2 (mishna Berachos 4:1) 1 תְּפִלַּת הַשַּׁחַר, עַד חֲצוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד אַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת. תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה עַד הָעֶרֶב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד פְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה. תְּפִלַּת הָעֶרֶב אֵין לָהּ קֶבַע. וְשֶׁל מוּסָפִין כָּל הַיּוֹם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁבַע שָׁעוֹת:‏
Shacharit [can be said] until midday. Rabbi Yehudah says until four hours into the day. Minchah [can be said] until the evening. Rabbi Yehudah says until the middle of the afternoon. Ma'ariv has no set time and Musaf can be said all day. Rabbi Yehudah says until seven hours into the day.

In the light of these two sources why do we have the minhag to say Mussaf straight after shacharis?

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In the first source, מִנְחָה refers to the flour offering that belongs to the morning sacrifice.

In the second source תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה is the afternoon prayers.

Why the afternoon prayers are called תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה is a separate question.

So, as you see, the Mussaf sacrifices were brought adjacent to the morning sacrifice.

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