Is Rosh HaShanah to be observed as if it were a Saturday?
Leviticus 23:24-25 implies this.
Does this extend to the second day, or only apply to the first?
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On holidays, all "work" is prohibited other than things related to food preparation and consumption. It's a detailed list, but some examples are:
On Rosh Hashannah, you can grind, cook, bake (using an existing flame) and do anything that's related directly to your meals for that day. Carrying in a public domain is also allowed on Thursday and Friday, this year. These are prohibited on Shabbat.
What I mentioned applies to both days of Rosh Hashanna each year, unless, of course, the first day is on Shabbat. In that case, Shabbat rules have priority.