Rambam starts Ilkhos Ishus with a negative commandment: "Not to have relations with a woman unless she has been granted a marriage contract, and the relationship sanctified through the rites of Kiddushin;". His reasoning is that the Torah forbade a Jewish harlot and this action "turns a woman into a harlot".
We would expect that transgressing this commandment would lead to some form of criminal punishment, like lashes. However, as hurting a woman as hurting any man constitutes damages (Nezeq) one must pay her full 5 parts of it inc. Tzaar and Boshet. In case of raping a virgin Na'ara there's also a Fine (קנס) that's paid to her father. But this payment is considered a repay of damages, not a punishment for the Torah transgression.
In our contemporary culture, rape constitutes a serious criminal offense, that is probably based on a Pshat of reading the Torah passage (Deu 22, 26):
"But if the man find the damsel that is betrothed in the field, and the man take hold of her, and lie with her; then the man only that lay with her shall die. But unto the damsel thou shalt do nothing; there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death; for as when a man riseth against his neighbor, and slayeth him, even so is this matter."
How come Judaism does not punish for this crime?