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I am aware that an onen (person whose close relative has died but has not yet been buried) does not wear tallit and tefillin.

As I understand, during Tish'a B'Av, we are considered aveilim (mourners, in the status after burial). One comparison is that an onen does not daven and cannot be counted as part of a minyan. That restriction does not apply to most people (i.e., those who are not Ch'v true onenim on Tisha B'Av.)

Aveilim do wear tallit and tefillin. So, why,on Tish'a B'av morning are we imitating the practice of onenim, when we aren't? Is there a different reason for omitting the tallit and tefillin?

Update:

See O.C. 555:1 Mishnah Brurah commentary #1 explains why Tallit Gadol is omitted. He cites a verse and there is something in Aramaic. I'd appreciate if someone can explain this and post as an answer.

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    No, Avelim are prohibited from wearing tefillin on the first day [or two] of mourning – Double AA Aug 2 '17 at 15:05
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    Keep in mind that it is the minhag of the Arizal and Jerusalem that one does wear tallis and tefillin for Shacharis on Tisha B'av. – ezra Aug 2 '17 at 15:07
  • related judaism.stackexchange.com/q/61384/759 – Double AA Aug 2 '17 at 15:08
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    From Chabad.org:"Tallit and tefillin are not worn during the morning services. Tefillin are referred to as our 'glory,' and on the Ninth of Av our glory is absent. Tzitzit are worn the entire day." – ezra Aug 2 '17 at 15:09
  • ben ish chsy parshat devarimsays to wesr tfilin in morning at home before tefila in bet kneset and recite shema only. – kouty Aug 2 '17 at 15:18
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Your question is asked and answered by the Aruch haShulchan in סימן תקנה - דיני תפילין וציצית בתשעה באב

א אף על גב דכמה דברים דין תשעה באב כאבל, מכל מקום לא חייבו חכמים בתשעה באב בכפיית המטה ועטיפת הראש כאבל, דדווקא לעניין מצות לא תעשה שבאבל חייבים בתשעה באב, כגון: תלמוד תורה, ורחיצה וסיכה, ונעילת הסנדל, ותשמיש המטה. ולא עשה שבאבל, ככפיית המטה ועטיפת הראש (טור). ‏

Even though in various aspects the laws of Tisha B'Av match those of mourners, nevertheless Chazal didn't oblige one to turn over one's bed nor cover one's head like mourners.

Because only the negative commandments were matched up, like learning Torah, washing, anointing, shoes and marital relations. And not positive commandments like beds and head coverings.

ומה שאין מניחין תפילין – לא נזכר בגמרא מזה. והרא''ש סוף תענית התפלא בזה: והרי גם האבל אינו אסור אלא ביום ראשון? ויש מהגדולים שהניחו בבוקר תפילין בביתם, וקראו קריאת שמע וחלצום, והלכו לבית הכנסת (באר היטב בשם הר''ם גלאנטי). ואומרים שכן עשה האריז''ל. ‏

The reason we don't wear Tefillin - nothing about this is mentioned in the Talmud. The Rosh (end of Taanis) also wonders about this: Even the mourners is only forbidden to wear Tefillin on the first day?

And there were great people who put on Tefillin at home, read the Shema, took them off and went to shul. Rumour has it the Ari z"l did this too.

ב אבל כל ישראל נהגו שלא להניח תפילין וציצית בבוקר בעת התפלה. והטעם נראה ברור, שהרי מה שהאבל פטור מתפילין ביום ראשון, משום דכתיב (עמוס ח י): ''וְאַחֲרִיתָהּ כְּיוֹם מָר'', ועיקר מרירות האבלות הוא יום ראשון. ולכן אין ללבוש תפילין, שנקראין ''פאר''; וקל וחומר בתשעה באב, היום המר והנמהר לכל ישראל, שאין לנו לשאת את הפאר של תפילין. ‏

But the custom in all communities is not to wear Talis and Tefillin during Shacharis. The reason seems obvious, for why is a mourner exempt from Tefillin on the first day? Because it says (Amos 8:10) (I will turn your festivals into mourning And all your songs into dirges; I will put sackcloth on all loins And tonsures on every head. I will make it mourn as for an only child,) all of it as on a bitter day, and the main bitterness is on the first day.

Therefore on the first day of mourning on cannot wear Tefillin which are called a glory (on the tonsure); all the more so on the bitter day of Tisha B'Av, a day that is bitter for the entire Jewish people, one cannot put on Tefillin.

==> Here comes the Aramaic that the Mishna Brura cites <==

וכן ציצית, דכתיב (איכה ב יז): ''בִּצַּע אֶמְרָתוֹ''. ואיתא במדרש (ויקרא רבה פרשה ו) ובתרגום: ''בִּזַּע פּוּרְפִּירָה דִּילֵיהּ'' (טור). אלא לובשין טלית קטן תחת בגדיו בלא ברכה. ‏

So too for the Tallis, as it says in Eicha (2:17) on the verse "He has carried out the decree". And we learn in the Medrash (Vayikra Rabba 6) and the Targum that it means "He ripped His cloak" (referring to the Paroches in front of the Holy of Holies, thus we don't wear our Tallis-cloak)

But we only wear out Tallis Kattan under our clothes, without a Bracha.

ובמנחה מניחים ציצית ותפילין, ומברכין עליהן, וכך נהגו כל ישראל. ותפילין דרבינו תם – אין להניח בתשעה באב, גם במנחה. ויש מניחין (עיין שערי תשובה). ולמה מניחים במנחה? דבמנחה אנו מקבלים תנחומין, שאומרים ''נחם''.

And at Mincha we put on Tallis and Tefillin, and we make their respective Brachot, and this is the accepted custom in all Jewish communities. And Rabbeinu Tam Tefillin are not worn on Tisha B'Av, even at Mincha. And some do wear them.

So why do we wear Tallis and Tefillin at Mincha? Because at Mincha we start accepting consolation, as we say נַחֵם - let us be consoled (in the Amida in the וְלִירוּשָׁלַיִם blessing).

  • Very thorough answer. Interesting that we need a separate explanation of why we wear Tefillin during Mincha. The first reasoning which alludes to the idea that we imitate aveilim who don't wear tefillin all day on the 1st day would have us assume that we shouldn't wear tefillin at all the entire day. The 2nd reason overrides this. However, the reasoning appears to make wearing tefillin completely dependent on a paragraph inserted in Amidah. I think there's a more general reason that relates to the overall concept of accepting tanchumim after chatzot. Any ideas on that, perhaps? – DanF Jul 23 '18 at 14:18
  • @DanF - some of that here - judaism.stackexchange.com/a/94150/501 - and see DoubleAA's comments there. – Danny Schoemann Jul 24 '18 at 9:41
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As @Double AA comments, Aveilim are prohibited from wearing tefillin on the first day [or two] of mourning. See the Wikipedia article, extract below:

אבלים פטורים מתפילין מפני שהן קרויות פאר. לפי ההלכה האבל אינו מניח תפילין ביום הראשון של האבלות בלבד

Mourners are free from wearing tefilin because they are called an adornment. According to halacha, the mourner does not wear tefilin on the first day of mourning.

(see the linked text for fuller details and about the second day).

The source is a gemoro Brochos 11a quoting Yechezkel 24 (16-18):

"Son of man, behold I am taking from you the desire of your eyes with a plague, but you shall not lament nor weep, neither shall your tears come [down]. Melt away in silence; a mourning for the dead you shall not make; your glory bind upon yourself, and put your shoes on your feet, and you shall not enwrap yourself over your upper lip, and you shall not eat the bread of men."

Rashi comments: your glory: Tefillin. All these commandments are for mourners, but you shall do the opposite. A mourner is forbidden to wear tefillin or shoes, he is required to wrap his head, and they serve him the first meal from food belonging to others.

The Gemoro says

א"ר אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל המצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהם פאר

Rav Aba bar Zavda says in the name of Rav, a mourner is obligated in all the mitzvos in the Torah except for tefillin because the word adornment is used for them.

So because we are aveilim on Tish'a B'Av, many do not wear tefillin (in the morning when the mourning is most intense.)

  • +1, mainly based on the Gemarah's source. What's a bit unclear for me is whether the halacha mentioned in the Gemarah applies to all 7 days of aveilut, and we are enacting a leniency by doing only 1 day, or if our halacha prohibits the 1st day since part of that day began in aninut, and we apply the rule of miktzat hayom (part of the day is considered like a whole day)? – DanF Aug 2 '17 at 16:50
  • @DanF See Rashi ד.ה:. אלמה אמר רבי אבא. and Tosfos ד.ה שנאמר בהם פאר : which says צריך טעמא דרש"י לחייבו בתפילין לאחר יום ראשון דלא שייך מעולל בעפר קרנו אלא ביום ראשון דוקא: which indicates that it is only for one day .מעיקר הדין – Avrohom Yitzchok Aug 2 '17 at 17:58
  • So, it seems we follow Tosfot opinion b/c Rashi's statement appears "deficient"? – DanF Aug 2 '17 at 18:16
  • This doesn't answer for Tallis. Also how do you know Tisha bav has this rule? – Double AA Aug 2 '17 at 18:35
  • @DoubleAA I'll have to see if Art Scroll has a source. I think this is mentioned in O.C. that we don't wear the tallit gadol, but we do wear tallit kattan. At any rate, I haven't been to any Nusach Ashkenaz shul where I have seen anyone wear one in the morning. – DanF Aug 3 '17 at 0:02

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