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Suppose it is allowed for Jews in the present to build a Third Temple, does that temple have to stand on the Temple Mount? Modern Israel is in many ways (actually most) not similar to the Israelite's kingdoms. The laws and customs are very different, the territory controlled and so on. The kingdom is different, so could the temple, in the same way, be different?

Edit: With "allowed" I don't mean politically, I mean religiously. :) Some rabbis want to construct a Third Temple, which I understand. But I don't understand why they need it placed on the Temple Mount. This graphic of Herod's Temple, seem to indicate that the most important part of the temple (Holy Place) only encompassed a small part of the Temple Mount.

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    Björn Lindqvist, welcome to Mi Yodeya, and thanks for bringing your question here! I hope you get great answers, and I look forward to seeing you around. – Isaac Moses Jul 25 '17 at 16:08
  • "Modern Israel is in many ways (actually most) not similar to the Israelite's kingdoms. The laws and customs are very different, the territory controlled and so on. The kingdom is different, so could the temple, in the same way, be different?" Just to point out, Modern Israel is not a halachic entity in the way the Land of Israel is – Orangesandlemons Jul 26 '17 at 11:55
  • It should be understood the vast majority if not all 'main stream' rabbis whether Ashkenazi, Sefardi, Ultra-Orthodox, Religious Zionists; all agree the temple cannot be built today. No one intends to blow up the dome of the rock or something like that. – Naftali Tzvi Aug 1 '17 at 21:06
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The Torah specifies that the Temple can only be built at the location specificaly chosen by Hashem.

R'ei 12:5

But only to the place which the Lord your God shall choose from all your tribes, to set His Name there; you shall inquire after His dwelling and come there.

This means the mishkan in the desert, the sanctuary at Shiloh, and the temple of Solomon in Yerushalaim. Once that was built, it could not be moved. As a result, the altar cannot be moved to any other location.

When Bar Kochba reconquered Yerushalaim, he was able to bring the Passover sacrifice on the location of the original mizbeach (altar). Once we re-establish worship (במהרה בימינו) there, we will have to identify the exact proper location for the Holy of Holies and the altars.

As Rav Hirsch say:

We have not to dedicate a place for Hashem, but He has to indicate to us the place that He fixes for His Sanctuary and to be our rallying point round about Him and His Sanctuary.

Additionally, Rav Hirsch point out that we must have the place specified by a prophet.

You are to enquire from a manifestation of His Presence, דרוש על פי נביא (find out what the Prophet of hashem has to say, Sifri), wait for an announcement of Hashem, and then באה שמה, assemble thither in national unity. לשכנו (see Genesis at end of notes on IX,27 and Exodus on XXV, 8)

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