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If a marriage is based off the exchange of something edible, it would seem that the marriage would work as the edible item, if שוה פרוטה, would facilitate the marriage. But the problem arises when the edible food either becomes stale, and might no longer be שוה פרוטה, or when it is eaten, and is then definitely not worth שוה פרוטה.

Does the marriage not work at all? Is the marriage annulled after the fact, once the price of the food drops? (There are cases in גמרא כתובות where marriage is annulled in retrospect. I’m not sure where though).

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    Why do you think the later value matters? What if the woman simply eats the food or gives it away? Or sells the ring she got? etc. It's just her property to do what she wants with. – Double AA Jul 20 '17 at 13:06
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    Mishna: One who is Mekadesh with a basket of fruit. Kidishin 2:7 - and the next 3 Mishnayos which talk about food being used. – Danny Schoemann Jul 20 '17 at 13:16
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    Normally we only care about the present value of the object meeting the minimum requirement when the kiddushin is accepted. It might be possible if the marriage were future-conditional (marry me in one month with this fruit) when the object became lost or destroyed, but only if the agreement/acceptance of kiddushin was separate from the legal acceptance of the object (i.e.: we will be married in a month when I will give you this object). In such case the present value of the object isn't being acquired by the woman at the present moment. – Isaac Kotlicky Jul 20 '17 at 15:31
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The Gomara discusses this (Kedushin 46a). This would only present a problem if it was stipulated that kedushin should only take effect at a later date and in the meanwhile the food is eaten (or becomes stale ect.). For a normal kedushin, effective immediately, what happens to the kesef kedushin (be it food, money or something else) after the kedushin is inconsequential. As long as it was worth a prutah when the kedushin took effect, food may be used.

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