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I have heard that a Shul has burned down as a cause for talking during Shul ( not talking during davening and Torah reading). I know that there are rewards for not talking in Shul, but I am wondering if anyone can provide a source(s) for a punishment for talking in Shul.

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    There are a few obvious "punishments" if you are the one talking - 1) You're disturbing your neighbor's kavana (concentration) which might be a form of "stealing". 2) Kri'at Hatorah (Torah reading) requires active listening for you to fulfill your obligation. If you're talking, you're probably not listening. There are other problems, of course. One noisy shul in my neighborhood actually closed down for about 2 months b/c the Rav carried out his threat to close the shul b/c of the noise. I gather that a neighborhood shul inherited the schmoozers - an "indirect punishment" to the other shul! – DanF May 30 '17 at 15:31
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The Mishna Berurah (124:27) quotes the Elya Rabbah (124:12, that is himself quoting the Kol Bo) that a number of shuls ended up being destroyed on account of talking during davening:

מנשוא - כתב בא"ר בשם הכל בו אוי להאנשים שמשיחים בעת התפלה כי ראינו כמה בהכ"נ נחרבו בשביל עון זה.‏

From bearing - The Elya Rabbah writes in the name of the Kol Bo, "Woe to the men who talk during the time of prayer, for we have seen many synagogues destroyed on account of this sin".

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