Rashi (Shmot 19:4, quoted below) writes that when the Jews left Egypt, God quickly gathered the Jews scattered throughout the Land of Goshen and brought them to Raamses in order to leave together. We see according to this that many Jews lived throughout the Land of Goshen. Furthermore, since Rashi is referring to a miraculous event, of how numerous Jews that were scattered throughout the land quickly gathered to Ramses, if there were other places where they lived Rashi would have included that in his commentary. Therefore it would be safe to assume that most, if not all, Jews lived in Goshen.
ואשא אתכם - זה יום שבאו ישראל לרעמסס, שהיו ישראל מפוזרין בכל ארץ גושן, ולשעה קלה כשבאו ליסע ולצאת נקבצו כלם לרעמסס