If saying a superfluous Amidah results in brachos l'vatala, as suggested here ("However if one is davening after 1/2 hour after Chatzos he isn’t Yotzei and his Brachos are L’vatalah. See Biur Halacha Siman 89 Dibur Hamaschil V’Achar"), then what of a situation in which one must repeat all or part of the Amidah because of an omission? For what reason are those repeated brachas not l'vatala? (Must it be "because the rabbis said they weren't?")

Also, what about a tefilla nedava? Why are the brachas in that tefila not considered l'vatala?

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    When one must repeat the Amidah, the reason is that the first recitation was not valid and (by implication) those blessings were l'vatala. The second recitation is valid and so not l'vatala. The possibility of making a tefillas nedovo derives from the possibility to bring a korban nedovo (free-will sacrifice). So, if one were able to meet all the conditions for a valid tefillas nedovo, the blessings would not be l'vatala. – Avrohom Yitzchok May 22 '17 at 16:08
  • @AvrohomYitzchok Thanks. What are the conditions for something to be a valid tefilas nedovo? For example, must one have in mind that it is a nedovo? – SAH May 22 '17 at 22:20
  • @AvrohomYitzchok Why not post that as an answer? – Ploni May 23 '17 at 1:48
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  • @AvrohomYitzchok do the blessings in an amidah that ends up needing repeating only become l'vatala retroactively? if so, how exactly does that happen – SAH May 24 '17 at 8:36

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