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What was meant when HaShem told Avraham His covenant would be with him and he would become the father of a multitude of nations? (Genesis 17:4, see also 12:2-3).

To whom does the multitude of nations refer?

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In addition to Yisrael, Avraham's descendants include:

  • Yishmael (Arabs)
  • Eisav (Edom, Amalek)
  • six children of Keturah, who might each count as their own nation (but I have no source for that)

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