Our Rabbis taught [on Tannaite authority], When the sun is in eclipse, it is a bad omen for the whole world.
This may be illustrated by a parable.
To what can this be compared?
To a human being who made a banquet for his servants and put up for them a lamp.
When he became wroth with them he said to his servant, 'Take away the lamp from them, and let them sit in the dark'.
It was taught: R`Meir said, Whenever the luminaries are in eclipse, it is a bad omen for Israel since they are inured to blows.
This may be compared to a school teacher who comes to school with a strap in his hand.
Who becomes apprehensive?
He who is accustomed to be daily punished.
Our Rabbis taught, When the sun is in eclipse it is a bad omen for idolaters; when the moon is in eclipse, it is a bad omen for Israel, since Israel reckons by the moon and idolaters by the sun.
If it is in eclipse in the east, it is a bad omen for those who dwell in the east; if in the west, it is a bad omen for those who dwell in the west; if in the midst of heaven it is bad omen for the whole world.
If its face is red as blood, [that is, a sign that] the sword is coming to the world; if it is like sack-cloth, the arrows of famine are coming to the world; if it resembles both, the sword and the arrows of famine are coming to the world.
If the eclipse is at sunset calamity will tarry in its coming; if at dawn, it hastens on its way: but some say the order is to be reversed.
And there is no nation which is smitten that its gods are not smitten together with it, as it is said, And against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments.
But when Israel fulfil the will of the Omnipresent, they need have no fear of all these [omens] as it is said, Thus saith the Lord,' Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven, for the nations are dismayed at them, the idolaters will be dismayed, but Israel will not be dismayed.
Our Rabbis taught, On account of four things is the sun in eclipse: On account of an Ab Beth din who died and was not mourned fittingly; on account of a betrothed maiden who cried out aloud in the city and there was none to save her; on account of sodomy, and on account of two brothers whose blood was shed at the same time.
And on account of four things are the luminaries in eclipse: On account of those who perpetrate forgeries, on account of those who give false witness; on account of those who rear small cattle in the land of Israel; and on account of those who cut down good trees.
And on account of four things is the property of householders given into the hands of the government: On account of those who retain in their possession bills which have been paid; on account of those who lend money on usury; on account of those who had the power to protest [against wrongdoing] and did not protest; and on account of those who publicly declare their intention to give specified sums for charity and do not give.
Rab said, On account of four things is the property of householders confiscated by the state treasury:
(1) On account of those who defer payment of the labourer's hire; on account of those who withhold the hired labourer's wages; on account of those who remove the yoke from off their necks and place it on [the necks] of their fellows
(2) and on account of arrogance.
And the sin of arrogance is equivalent to all [the others] whereas of the humble it is written, But the humble shall inherit the land, and delight themselves in the abundance of peace.