Generally speaking there seems to be a list of "Yeshivish Masechtos" (masechtos usually studied in Yeshivot) and specific Perakim which are learnt in Chareidi mainstream Yeshivot. For instance, in the Mir and BMG which פרקים do they do?
Yeshivish mesechtos are typically the masechtos learned in high school because they are the ones that are more involving (lots of lomdus) and can train a person how to properly learn gemara.
Very often yeshivos have a machzor, cycle of 8 masechtos:
- (1,2) יבמות
- (1,3) כתובות
- (1,2,10) נדרים
- (1,4,6,8) גיטין
- (1,2,3) קידושין
- (1,2,3,9) בבא קמא
- (1,2,3,9) בבא מציעא
- (1,2,3,8) בבא בתרא.
Obviously every yeshiva has its own way of doing things, but these are fairly common.
In Lubavitch, the cycle is Kiddushin, Bava Metzia, Shabbos, Gittin, Bava Basra, Kesuvos, Bava Kamma, Pesachim, Kesuvos (in that order).
All focusing on the first chapter, except Kesuvos focusing on the second.
Although there is no canonical cycle accepted by all, many traditional Yeshivas have a cycle involving the following tractates:
Some Yeshivos (primarily in Eretz Yisroel) also do:
Brisk style Yeshivos generally focus on Kodshim oriented mesechtos:
Note: While the main tractates are fairly consistent amongst most Yeshivos built on the Lithuanian-model, the Perakim chosen to study in depth vary widely.