Why don't we say Al HaNisim on Pesach? Aren't the miracles performed at that time far more overwhelming (and explicit) than the miracles for which we do recite this?
Elleh HaMitzvot (#486) writes that we don't say a blessing of SheAsah Nissim LaAvoteinu... on biblical Mitzvot because we would have been obligated in those Mitzvot even if the miracles hadn't happened. It so happens that the miracles did happen in order for us to be able to use the Mitzvot to remember them. He writes "שמצות התורה לא הקבעו מחמת הנסים, אדרבה הנסים נתלו במצוות the Mitzvot of the Torah were not established because of the miracles, on the contrary, the miracles were hung on the Mitzvot." This could also explain why there is no Al HaNissim prayer.
Keter Shem Tov (vol 3 pg 142) suggests that Al HaNissim was enacted by Geonim and they didn't want to add something to a Mitzva Deorayta.
"Ya'aleh v'yavo" is an addition to the bracha of "R'tzei," which discusses our plea that HaShem desire us & our prayers enough so as to re-institute the karbanos which they represent. "Al hanissim" is a specific addition of thanks to the bracha "Modim" which is a general bracha of thanksgiving.
We only say Al hanissim when we have no ability to request that we reinstitute the karbanos. Purim and Chanukah have no specific karbanos for us to plea for. So Chazal found another method to mention them in Shmoneh Esrei. This shows their importance, despite not having karbanos.
As to mentioning the miracles of Yetzias Mitzrayim, we do! Chazal felt that they were so important that they require us to mention them many times in davening every single day! The daily brachos of "Emes v'yatziv" [in Shacharis] and "Emes v'emuna" [in Ma'ariv] [both, until "Ga'al Yisroel"] go into great detail about these Nissim (miracles) based on the last passuk of Shma, "I am HaShem, who took you out of Mitzrayim.
And then there are the paragraphs that were added later, such as the end of the book of Ezra-Nechemia, Kapital 9/ pesukim 5 or 6-11, (after Va'yevorech David"), which speak generally about those Nissim and then the addition of "Va'yo'sha" and "Az Yasher Moshe" which goes into great detail.
Then, on the actual Yom Tov, there is, of course, Hallel, which dedicates an entire paragraph to those Nissim (Perek 114), which we refer to on every holiday, showing the overwhelming importance of the miracles of Yetzias Mitzrayim.
Finally, in the Yomtov Amidah, we refer to these Nissim as well as our special relationship to HaShem, again, in a context of expressing our desire to bring those karbanos in the Bais haMikdash which would bring to our mind our great thanks "Al haNissim"(about the miracles) of Yetzias Mitzrayim!