If I want to learn a Sugya in Gemarah all the way from the Daf to modern day Poskim, what has worked for you in order to accomplish this goal? Which Rishonim did you learn? Did you look at the Tur or only Shulchan Aruch? How, if at all, were you able to see what modern day Poskim have to say?
In my humble opinion it is a matter of practice and Shimush Talmidey Chachamim. Anyway, since halacha is usually based on a few Sugiyot, I would suggest going to the בית יוסף to find the relevant סוגיות and when you can see a clear picture of the sources for that halacha you can focus first on the more fundamental sugiyot of that halacha (that is, when there are really a few sugiyot "involved"). Finding the relevant Poskim from our generation would definitly be a matter of practice and knowing where to look, I would use פסקי תשובות for אורח חיים sugiyot, and the "expert" books like קיצוש"ע בשר בחלב, שמירת שבת, etc, most of them have index by שו"ע order.