This is an explosive issue, that could have a many consequences. With great apprehension, I expose these questions to the community.
The Talmud (AZ 27b) and in the Tosfot talks about the issur to frequent the מינים and to cure by them:
לא ישא ויתן אדם עם המינים ואין מתרפאין מהן אפילו לחיי שעה וכו' שאני מינות דמשכא דאתי לממשך בתרייהו וכו'
1) Is another benefit permitted? For example, to receive a gift from him? Or the man became like an איסור הנאה , a דרבנן extension to the issur to benefit from an avoda zara?
2) In the history, there was some mathematicians that were religious or theologists. So, is it permitted to use "their" theorems? Is it considered a profit from the מינים ? ("to use" include to use them in a mathematical proof, but also in everyday life... when using a system based on this 'technology'.)
3) IMHO, in almost all cases, if he did not discover this, another man did. Just question of time. But, now, the theorem is called on the name of the מין so maybe remains some אתי לממשך בתרייהן ?
4) Or, sometimes, even they were not, but, they learned mathematics from missionaries etc. Does the problem propagate ?
5) More recently, a computer language was created by a missionary. (I suppose, with a growing up team around him -- as usual in hack community.) Is it permitted to program with this language? Or, much more important: to access a website that runs this language?
Again -- if the language did not exist, the developers just chose another... הנאה הבאה לו על כרחו ? Or even not considered an הנאה : for me there is absolutely no gain from using this language.
is a mathematical concept, a man's creation, or he just was who Hashem choose to discover one of His world's rules?...