There is a simple ordered list that can be found at Ask Moses. It says:
The laws of inheritance are numerous and complex. The following are the basic rules:
- If a man dies, his possessions are divided by his sons. His wife can either take her Ketubah or can live off her husband's estate for
as long as she wishes.
- If there is a firstborn son, he receives a double portion.
- The daughters are supported off their father's estate until they get married.
- Each daughter receives a dowry from the father's estate.
- If there aren't any sons, the estate passes to the daughters.
- If a woman dies, her husband inherits all her possessions.
- If she has no husband, her sons (or daughters, if there aren't any sons) inherit her possessions.
- If one doesn't have any children (or grand-children) the estate goes to the deceased's father.
- If the deceased doesn't have a father, the estate goes to the deceased's brothers (or sisters, if there aren't any brothers), or, if
they are no longer alive, their descendants.
A more thorough treatment of the rules of inheritance can be found at The Jewish Encyclopedia.
To address the comment about whether adopted children inherit, I would say probably not. Per Halachah, adopted children don't have the same status as biological children (see this article in The Jewish Virtual Library for more information).
Please note, that all the above refers to a 'default' inheritance (i.e. the person dies without any specific will in place). There are certain ways within the bounds of Halachah that do allow one to craft a will of sorts.