Is there any rabbinic literature explaining why Hashem created only one planet (Earth) in the whole entire universe that can support intelligent life?
Technically, given the way the Torah deals with life on Earth, there could be worlds designed for future settlement or worlds with intelligent beings and travel possible or impossible. Note how the Torah ignores the other civilizations on this Earth except as they interact with Bnai Yisrael. You should be asking if Chazal deal with the possibilities of other worlds.
For example Is There Life on Other Planets?
Several Torah scholars of past generations have discussed the possibility of life on other planets. Rabbi Chasdai Crescas (Spain, 1340–1411) wrote that there is nothing anywhere in Torah that negates such a possibility.3 Rabbi Yosef Albo (Spain, 1380–1444), on the other hand, disagreed.4 Rabbi Pinchas Horowitz (Poland 1765-1861), cites Albo, but rejects his thesis.5
- Ohr Hashem 4:5.
- Sefer Ha'Ikrim.
- Sefer HaBrit HaShalem 1:3, 4.
There are discussions as to whether beings on other planets would or would not have free will and what Hashem would command them and would they be given a (or the) Torah. Since we cannot determine this, any discussion is a matter of opinion based on how we read the Torah.
I would bring Zohar Teruma (ח"ב קסא, א):
דכד ברא קוב"ה עלמא אסתכל בה באורייתא וברא עלמא
G-d looked at the Torah and created the world accordingly.
As the Torah does not mention the creation of other intelligent creatures we can interact with, besides animals and other humans, we can conclude G-d didn't create alien worlds we can interact with.