In the translation profession, a distinction is made between interpreters, who work with oral discourse, and translators, who work with written discourse. When the Bible is read aloud it is both an oral and a written text, thus making the dragoman both an interpreter and a translator. Most synagogues have long abolished the dragoman, probably because Aramaic became displaced by other languages in most of the Jewish world. The ancient custom of having both a reader for the Hebrew and a dragoman for interpretation/translation is traditionally traced back to Ezra's Torah assembly at the water gate (Neh 8). Rabbinic tradition understands the word מפרש in Neh 8.8 as a reference to the dragoman.
Rabbinic tradition sees the generation of Joshua ben Nun as the pioneers of biblical translation, accrediting them with engraving a polyglot Torah on the stones of Mount Ebal (m. Soṭ. 7.5). They based this view on Deut 27.8, where Moses commands Israel to write the Torah on stone באר היטב, very clearly. This ancient polyglot included "70 languages," a number that is probably based on the table of nations in Gen 10. If "Aram" mentioned in Gen 10.23 refers to Aramaic-speakers, then it is likely that the Joshua polyglot included Aramaic as well.
Unfortunately for us, the Joshua polyglot described by the rabbis has not been found. The oldest available fragments of Bible translations are in Greek and Aramaic and date from the first century BCE. A notable Aramaic example is the Job Targum found Qumran, cave 11. A notable Greek example is the Minor Prophets scroll found at Nahal Hever.