Can anyone give me examples in the Talmud of Aramaic words that have a kamatz Katan under them that are clearly pronounced like "oh"?
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It is worthwhile noting that there is no uniform vocalization tradition for the Talmud. The original forms have been substantially corrupted over the centuries. It is well known that only the Yemenites have a claim to authenticity in their tradition, but even that system is not without its flaws (Morag 1988).
Bar-Asher Segal (2013:47) writes: "the reflex of Proto-Semitic /u/ in closed unstressed syllables is usually written with either sureq or qibbus, as in אֻחְרִינָה and טוּפְרֵיה; but qames is found occasionally (cf. Hebrew), as in חָכְמתֵיה [sic]"
Sokoloff reiterates the dangers of hasty vocalization in his Babylonian Aramaic Dictionary. He describes how he establishes careful vocalization of the "probable pronunciation of the word in the Geonic period" from a variety of sources (2002:22). We find that his dictionary lists some examples where qamas qatan is swapped with a holem like חָכְמְתָא and חוֹכְמְתָא. Elsewhere it is swapped with shureq: צוּרְכָה & צָרְכָה or קוּרְבָּנָה & קָרְבָּנָה.
Thus it seems that a qamas qatan had the a quality of a holem (as in modern Sephardi pronunciation) or shureq (like the pre-Sephardi Palestinian pronunciation).
Bar-Asher Segal 2013: Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.
Morag 1988: ארמית במסורת תימן: לשון התלמוד הבבלי: מבוא, תורת ההגה ותצורת-הפועל
Sokoloff 2002: A Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic of the Talmudic and Geonic Periods