There is an issur to ask astrologers (Pess. 113; Shul.Ar. YD 179,1). And Rashi says (Dev. 13, 18) התהלך עמו בתמימות ותצפה לו ולא תחקור אחר העתידות So, is then a problem to
- ...compute probabilities?
- Learn their mathematical theory? (without the goal of using them... for example, among other units to pass a degree)
- And even, to check the weather predictions?...
A few thoughts:
Maybe there is a difference with astrology, because probabilites do not "predict" the future, but just give the "weight" of an event. Even a "zero" probability can happen (for example, taking a random point of the real line, every single point has a zero probability but at end there is a result).
Maybe probability is more like a סימן , like בית תינוק ואשה , that is permitted (Chulin 95b)?
Do we use רוב (Chulin 11a) to "predict" that a child "will be" fertile in the future, or do we say that "now" he is not a סריס ?
The Targum on Kohelet 11, 4
שומר רוח לא יזרע ורועה בעבים לא יקצור
indeed seems to compare meteorology and asrology?...