What cases are there in Tanach or Gemara where we see someone violate a בין אדם למקום commandment and not get punished for doing so. I'm aware of:

  • Esther in Megillat Esther

Although a Machloket, siding with the idea that she was still married to Mordechi Esther was over illicit relations when she slept with king Achashverosh. Source: There is a תוס in סנהדרין in the 8th Perek that discusses why it wouldn't be a cardinal sin. Although תוס gives an answer, the premise he is working off of is that the act was indeed illicit relations (He just explains why it wouldn't be so with a non-Jew)

  • Saul

Committed suicide to end his life.

  • Shimshon

Committed suicide to end his life.

Edit: Appropriate: Was not punished in court or said to have done wrong in the text.

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    What are you referring to, specifically, by these three people? What sins did they commit? – DonielF Jan 1 '17 at 0:14
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    Which of the three cardinal sins did Ester violate? | Consider improving your questions with sources for your premises. | Are you only asking about punishment and lack thereof by court, or even to punishment at the hands of heaven? – mevaqesh Jan 1 '17 at 0:35
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    What makes you think these instances if any were appropriate? – Double AA Jan 1 '17 at 1:28
  • siding with the idea that she was still married to Mordechi The implication seems to be that they were definitely married at one point. This is incorrect. | Esther was over illicit relations when she slept with king Achashverosh But it wasn't necessarily a cardinal sin. (Certainly no source is cited). – mevaqesh Jan 1 '17 at 5:24
  • You seen to be redefining cardinal sin. I could just as easily say that getting out of bed is a cardinal sin, just that there is an exception if you don't kill anybody... – mevaqesh Jan 1 '17 at 7:19

Yael (Shoftim 4). In the battle with Sisera, the infamous general fled to his good friend Yael's house. The latter (who was married) had relations with him seven times (Horayos 11) to wear him out. When Sisera finally fell asleep, Yael took a tent peg and drove it into his skull, killing him. The reason she was not punished is because it was an aveirah lishmah - she had good intentions, namely, saving Klal Yisrael, when she did so. Nevertheless, the Gemara discusses whether she received any benefit from her act - in the event that she did she would have been punished.

The aforementioned Gemara also notes Lot's daughters (Bereishis 19), who had relations with their father on successive nights, believing themselves to be the only remaining people alive after the destruction of Sedom. Although Lot is rebuked by the Gemara, as he should have taken precautions against his second daughter having relations with him once he realized that his first daughter had done so, his daughters themselves are praised. The pesukim record that they gave birth to Moav and Amon, respectively, from these actions. Moav was the predecessor of Rus and therefore Dovid HaMelech (Rus 1,4), and Amon was the predecessor of Na'amah, Shlomo HaMelech's wife and the mother of his successor, Rechavam HaMelech (Melachim Aleph 11).

  • @mevaqesh. That's a fair point re Amon and Moav. But since when is Eishes Ish not a cardinal sin? – DonielF Jan 1 '17 at 0:43
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    For non-Jews? [char] – mevaqesh Jan 1 '17 at 0:48
  • @mevaqesh See Sanhedrin 59. ודבק באשתו ולא באשת חבירו. Besides, it's not at all clear that Yael wasn't Jewish. Remember, they were descendants of Yisro. – DonielF Jan 1 '17 at 5:32
  • See Sanhedrin 59 Does that relate to yehareg v'al ya'avor? Not as as far as I remember? | Regardless sources should be edited into the answer. | Besides, it's not at all clear that Yael wasn't Jewish. It seems like you are conceding that its not at all clear that she was. (Indeed AFAICT pashut p'shat is that she wasn't) As with most other essential issues relating to an answer, it should be edited in. – mevaqesh Jan 1 '17 at 5:40
  • @mevaqesh No, it has nothing to do with yaharog v'al yaavor. But that's the source that Eishes Ish is assume to a Ben Noach. And where did the OP specify that he was looking specifically for Jews? – DonielF Jan 1 '17 at 5:45

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