Can we get a complete list of occasions (dates or other occasions) on which someone (everyone, or just those with a particular circumstance) stays up all night (on purpose)?
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- The first night of Shavuos. (MB 494:1.)
- The second night of Shavuos. (Custom mentioned by Shaloh and Yesod Veshoresh Ha'avodah, though practiced by only a select few.)
- The night of Yom Kipur. (Implied by Rama 619:6.)
- The night of Hosha'na Raba. (MB 664:1 talks about being up that night. He doesn't specify that it's all night, but I assume he means as much. The Chabad custom, at least, is to stay up all night - Sefer Hasichos 5702, p. 100; I don't know whether this is true in other circles, though.)
- The first night of Pesach. (Tosefta says one should stay up discussing Yetzias Mitzrayim until sleep overtakes him. This is quoted in the Shulchan Aruch. Haggada discusses story where the Rabbis stayed up all night.)
- The seventh night of Pesach. (Custom mentioned in Yesod Veshoresh Ha'avodah, and practiced by various groups of chassidim.)
- The night before a bris (vach nacht), the father and the sandek (and maybe also the mohel; not sure about this) stay up and learn, to protect the child. (Zohar, Lech Lecha)
- There are some that don't sleep on shabbat (not a halacha, but there is something to it, Chesed Lalafim 231:2, Likras Shabbos 2:29:footnote 8, see Tzitz Eliezer 7:23, Nishmas Shabbos 2:426)
- Thursday night many in yeshivos stay up for a "mishmar" learning all night (or part of it). Living Jewish: Values, Practices and Traditions