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I have heard it said (but have no source) that the obligation to wear tefillin covers the entire day, and that people used to actually wear their tefillin all day long. (Various passages that I have seen in the gemara, of people removing tefillin to go to the toilet and replacing them afterwards would support this). Now that we are no longer able to focus our minds on clean thoughts for such a length of time (or so the story goes), we only put the tefillin on once and in the morning. This is why a person who forgot to wear tefillin by shacharis, or who forgot to daven shacharis, should put on tefillin in the afternoon for mincha.

But if the mitzva of wearing tefillin goes for the entire day, why do we need to supplant it with a one-time obligation? Why don't we say that all day-time davening (shacharis and mincha) requires tefillin? Why don't we encourage the use of tefillin at other points of time as well - such as when saying birkas hammazon, for example, or learning/teaching Torah?

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    why do you assume there is a chyiuv to put on teffilin everyday maybe its a mitzva which needs to be done once in a lifetime or once in a while,can you source an everyday chyiuv – sam Dec 1 '16 at 5:07
  • judaism.stackexchange.com/a/77396/759 I think we just need to reject your premise that we only do it once. It's more like we usually (even very, very, usually) do it once. – Double AA Dec 1 '16 at 5:43
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    Note that Tefillin is a stand alone mitzvah. It essentially has nothing to do with prayer, blessings, or Torah study. – mevaqesh Dec 1 '16 at 5:50
  • Even these days, some wear tefillin for long periods of time. E.g. R. David Bar-Haim. In prior times this was increasingly common. R. Kook, for example, wore tefillin all day in Volozhin. If indeed, one wishes to fulfill the mitzvah properly, is not concerned that he will behave inappropriately, and has no other concerns, e.g. yuhara, then TTBOMK there is indeed no reason not to do just what you are proposing; and more. – mevaqesh Dec 1 '16 at 5:52

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