There are certain, rituals such as the sending away of the scapegoat on Yom Kippur or the drawing of water on Sukkot which are described in Mishna as relating geographically to the location of the Beit HaMikdash. I would assume these, and any other location-based rituals, were performed during the time of the Mishkan (in Shiloh). Therefore I would like to know if the locations were different during the times of the Mishkan, eg. did they not send the scapegoat to בית חדודו (Mishna, Yoma 6:8) but rather a different place, or did they use the same geographic locations that would eventually be used in the times of the Beit HaMikdash?
A partial answer, addressing only the question of the scapegoat on Yom Kippur:
Firstly, your assumption that this ritual was performed during the time of the Mishkan in Shiloh (as well as earlier times) is borne out by a beraita quoted in Yoma 67b:
המדברה המדברה במדבר לרבות נוב וגבעון שילה ובית עולמים
“Into the wilderness” (Leviticus 16:10), “into the wilderness” (Leviticus 16:21), and “in the wilderness” (Leviticus 16:22), to include Nov and Givon and Shiloh, when the Tabernacle was located there, and the eternal Temple.
As to the location of the ritual during the times of Shiloh, see this article (Hebrew) by Netanel Elinson and Yair Tiktin.
In it, they quote a couple of suggestions by earlier scholars:
- R. Meir Koznitz suggests that it was the same place as was used later in the times of the Mikdash, which he identifies as the cliffs overlooking Nahal Michmash (Wadi es-Suweinit) (map).
- Dr Dov Ashbel suggests that the location was Sartaba (Alexandrium) (map).
The Ramban al Hatorah, here says that there were no Mussafim on the Yamim Tovim in the Midbar.
The Nissuch Hamayim is very complicated as the Gemara in Taanit says that it is permissible to be brought at night. Korbanot can not be brought at night. Does that mean that the Nissuch Hamayim is not an Avodah, or it is and it has an exception?
This does not really help though, as it seems that the Ramban does hold they happened in the Mishkan, and he doesn't specify where the Sair was sent.