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According to our tradition, converts acquire a "new soul" in, or upon emergence from, the conversion mikvah. (Not sure of the original source for this--it may be the Zohar--but there are countless secondary sources.) Accordingly, they change their names, and lose most components of halachic relationship with their birth-parents. But is(n't) the "new soul" just a new Jewish soul, a נשמה, in addition to the convert's preexisting nefesh and ruach? Does(n't) the convert keep the nefesh and ruach he was born with? If so, why would the convert's name, and particularly parents, have to change?

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    but there are countless secondary sources. editing an example in would be nice. || Accordingly, they change their names Many converts don't change their names. Even if they do, I doubt this is because of spiritual change. They probably just want to better fit into their communities, and / or confirm their identity shift. || and lose most components of halachic relationship with their birth-parents Again, I don't know why this should be pegged on this "new-soul". The Talmud, the source for this law, does not AFAIK peg it on a new soul. – mevaqesh Nov 7 '16 at 16:04
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    Does(n't) the convert keep the nefesh and ruach he was born with? If so, why would the convert's name, and particularly parents, have to change Even if the practice of changing one's name, or even the halakha of severance of halakhic biological ties with one's erstwhile relatives, is pegged on a new-soul, what is so difficult? Why assume that these should be based on the nefesh and ruach, rather than the neshama? – mevaqesh Nov 7 '16 at 16:06
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    @mevaqesh Your identification of logical holes in my question is, as usual, correct. But let me suggest that a question is not an argument, and that the weak points of a question may in fact be the question itself – SAH Nov 7 '16 at 16:08
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    @DanF That prayer seems to refer to the resurrection of the dead. olam haba doesn't necessarily refer to the resurrection of the dead. – mevaqesh Nov 7 '16 at 19:29
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    This question is very interesting. I always thought that to see conversion as an organ transplant is nothing else than concrete thinking. Your efforts to conceptualize this as an addition is beautiful. BTW concerning Teshuva David Hamelech was seeking creation of heart and ruach – kouty Nov 8 '16 at 11:56

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