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The various codes I have read often discuss if a person makes an error when saying various parts of the Amidah (seasonal or holiday based changes or insertions) and birkat hamazon, but the Shulchan Aruch, O"C, 267:3 indicates that on Friday night, we change the text of the end of Hashkiveinu before the Amidah and it doesn't seem to say what one should do if he erroneously said the weekday text.

Do the commentaries (or other sources) indicate that one should repeat the blessing with the proper closing (or, if one catches himself within a certain time, simply say the proper ending), or whether repeating would be an interruption between the Sh'ma and the Amidah and the weekday text would be an acceptable alternative so one needs not resay anything?

I understand that there are possible variables (davening with a minyan or alone, and whether one is concerned about an interruption related).

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Yes, commentaries told about this : Mishna Berura (OC) 267, Saif 3, sk 9. Two cases are enumerated.

(ט) הפורס סוכת וכו' — ואם שכח ואמר "שומר עמו ישראל" תחת "הפורס סוכת שלום", אם נזכר תוך כדי דיבור, יאמר מיד אחר תיבת "לעד", "הפורס" וכו'. ואם שהה כדי דיבור [הוא כדי שיאמר "שלום עליך רבי ומורי"] מעת שסיים תיבת "לעד", אין צריך לאמרו, ולא יחזור עוד הפעם. המנהג לומר אחר סיום הברכה: "ושמרו בני ישראל" וגו', ובמועדים "וידבר משה" וגו', בראש השנה "תקעו", וביום הכיפורים "כי ביום הזה" וגו' [פמ"ג]:‏

  1. If he forgot and ended by ShomerYisroel instead Hapores Succas Sholoym and remembered toch kede dibbur he needs to say immediately after 'load' 'happoreys'.
  2. But if he had waited longer, i. e. the time needed to say 'Sholoym, Oleicho Rabbi' after the word "load", the blessing can not be correct, so "happoress" should not be said, additionally, there is no need to repeat the blessing since the beginning.

I found in Abudarham, arvit shel Shabbat that ufrios alenu is from Yerouchalmi Berachot chapter 4 halacha 5. He reported also that some communities said shomer amo... even on Shabbat.

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