They weren't "mainstream" Jews, but the sect that lived at Qumran that wrote some of the Dead Sea Scrolls sure did, writing a series of "Peshers"/commentaries on the Prophets, relating prophesies already fulfilled, usually by the first Exile, to events in their own time(approximately 130BCE-70CE), as well as to future/messianic times. The most complete and well known one is the Habbakuk Pesher, but fragments were found of Peshers on Nachum, Isaiah, Zephaniah, Micah, and some Psalms. These all are full of references to their Teacher of Righteousness and their sect, sometimes referred to as "the Poor" or "the Simple" or "Council of the Community" and their struggles against their enemies -the "Scoffers in Jerusalem", the "Wicked Priest", the "Spouter of Lies", the "Furious Young Lion", "those who seek smooth things", and assorted others. These can all be found in Vermes' Complete Dead Sea Scrolls In English. Since none of these terms had proper names attached to them, they've provided a lot of food for thought, articles, and dissertations for Dead Sea Scroll scholars as to who/what all these people(as Vermes wrote "there was no shortage of Wicked Priests" in that era) and groups and events actually were. There are a few exceptions, as when the Nachum Pesher mentions two Seleucid kings, Demetrius and Antiochus, and describes a known event when Demetrius III tried to enter Jerusalem after defeating Alexander Janneus, but didn't succeed. But these Peshers indicate that yes, there were people reading the Prophets' already fulfilled prophesies and Psalms as relating to their own times, as well as Messianic times.