Is there any rabbinic literature on the details of the concept of Hades, which is also commonly understood as Hell; and what kind of people deserve to be punished there?
Here's a few statements from Rabbinic literature about the concept of Geheinom who goes there and how it differs from Hades.
Who goes there:
- Rabi Yehoshuah ben Levi said, 'Anyone who speaks about the beds of the Sages, falls to Geihinom.'(Talmud Brachos 19a)
- The Rabbis taught, 'anyone who passes money to a woman from his hand to her hand in order to gaze at it, even if he has Torah and good deeds like Moses, he will not be cleansed from the judgment of Geihinom. (Talmud Brachos 61a)
- Rabbah ben Shilo said, 'Anyone who makes his mouth disgusting, they will deepen Geihinom for him. (Talmud Sabbath 31a)
- Fire is 1/60 of Geihinom (Talmud Brachos 57b)
- And some say, it has no measurement.
How it differs from Hades
- They sat for 12 months. They said, 'The judgement for a wicked person is 12 months in Geihinom. (Talmud Sabbath 33b)
- Rabi Yehoshuah ben Levi said, 'There are seven names for Geihinom and these are they: She'ol and Avadon and B'er Shachas and Bor She'on and Tit HaYaven and Tzalmaves and Eretz HaTachtis. (Talmud Eiruvin 19a)
- That Rabi Chaninah said 'Everyone goes down to Geihinom except for three.' Do you mean to say 'everyone'? Rather say, 'everyone who goes down to Geihinom rises [from it], besides three, and these are they: someone who has relations with a married woman, someone who embarrasses his friend in public and someone who calls his friend by a nickname. (Talmud Bava Metziah 58b)
- The Holy One blessed be He judges the wicked in Geihinom for 12 months. First He puts in them boils (?), then He places them in fire and they say "hoi, hoi". Then He places them in snow and they say, "vai, vai". (Jerusalem Talmud Sanhedrin 10:3)
there is extensive discussion in the book Reishis Chachma, Section Yira (fear)