Cover your eyes - this post contains chassidus!
One of the powers/responsibilities of the Jew is to elevate the world by sanctfying it. In shema we say "bekhol meodecha" , " with all your means" does that mean selling all your possessions to buy a nice esrog? (yes it does. I will sell you one; put your email in the comment)
No it doesn't. It means saying "how is this next purchase going to be used for mitzvos and holiness" similarly when we make blessings on food, we take eating, which even animals do and place it on the spiritual plane
Wine is a very special item because it alters people's consciousness. When a chossid gets slightly tipsy, it enables him to let go of the world and sing to hashem and the chossid's wine is holy.
He has elevated the ordinary fermented grape mash tremendously.
When a sheigetz drinks wine, he drinks and gets drunk, vomits and falls and lowers himself and the wine spiritually.
Wine gets special treatment because it is capable of both spiritual heights and depths and the protections help insulate its consumption from the conditions that lead to depths.