I've had the same question. The following is what I've been told by people who claim to be in the know. I can't verify whether the facts or the science is true.
The short answer is a lack of injection of certain growth hormones into the dairy cows.
The longer version.
A large portion of the Chalav Yisroel milk (at least in the east cost U.S.A.) come from farms run under Hassidic auspices.
The Hassidic Rabbis as a general rule believe that an injection delivered into a cows stomach through the stomach walls renders the cow a treipha who's milk may not be drunk.
Most non-hassidic Rabbis disagree. Rabbi Belsky took exceptional offense to this idea. He said they were paskening with a hava amina (first thought) in the gemara instead of the maskana (final ruling).
As you may have guessed by now, the claim is that those hormones effect the milk and give it a longer shelf life.
[I'm not sure about the current law but supposedly it was illegal for a company to advertise that their milk was produced without growth hormones for fear of causing undo concerns amongst the consumers. Some chalav yisroel milk companies were allowed to advertise this fact being that it is a religious exemption.]
I personally have found a difference in different companies. I won't name the ones that seem to spoil faster, but I will say that I have been pleased with Fresh and Tasty.