Is there any mention by our sages of blessed memory of Jews living in Central Asia: Iran Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Xinjiang, Caucasus area, Armenia, Georgia.

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The biblical book of Esther describes the Jews in "the kingdom of Persia and Media", which is roughly Iran and Azerbaijan today. As noted in the comments, there have been many Jews in present-day Iran for a very, very long time.

The Talmud uses "Media" (again, present-day Azerbaijan) as an example of a far-flung, but still accessible place. You're obligated to return something you stole, even if it means going all the way to Media. And Well this item may not be worth much around here, but maybe it's worth something in Media?