Especially with regard to the family of Abraham. Is there any extra-Biblical historical evidence of a paternal link between the Ishmaelite, Edomite and Keturan tribes and the 12 tribes of Israel? Is it even possible that the 12 tribes aren't even descended from one common ancestor (which would explain several major discrepancies in Jewish Y chromosome DNA) but are, in truth, a number of unrelated tribes who banded together around the idea of a singular creator G-d?

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    Is your question about every story listed in the Genesis or are you focusing specifically on the lineage that you mentioned? One item, in particular that I think does need to be taken literally in your list is Edom's direct relationship to Jacob / Israel. In Numbers, we see that when Moses sends messengers to Edom he calls his own nation, "Your brother, Israel". This is a few hundred years after Esav was born. So, it seems that Moses, at least, was acknowledgingthe direct relationship.
    – DanF
    Commented Sep 9, 2016 at 18:24
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    DNA is hardly a counter-argument, since Jews took converts over time.
    – gt6989b
    Commented Sep 9, 2016 at 19:34
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    The odd thing is, though, that the Jews who do carry Ydna chromosomes, such as E1b1, R1a, R1b (and other descendents of K) that can be widely found across Europe, carry versions of those haplogroups that originated in the Middle East and North Africa. Not Europe. To give one example. Most European R1b males belong to the subclade R1b1a1a2 (R-M269); whereas the majority of Jews and Arabs who carry it belong to the subclade R1b-V88. Which is older than its European cousin and mostly found in the ME and NAf For more on R1B see eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml
    – Mark
    Commented Sep 11, 2016 at 6:57


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