Does anyone know where there is a elaborated set of Halachot for Shabbat in the outdoors.
More precisely I would like to cook chicken on coals for Shabbat morning.
My idea is to make a bonfire Friday afternoon, dig a hole before Shabbat and put the coals and the chicken wrapped in foil in the hole.
I want to know what are the Halachot I need to be aware of.

  • 1
    You're looking for the laws of Hatmana B'Davar HaMosef Hevel (burying [food] in something that increases heat). This is a classic example, and is forbidden. The laws are in Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim startng in Chapter 253 and on. [Incomplete article with some more sources here: halachipedia.com/index.php?title=Hatmana ]
    – Menachem
    Commented Aug 22, 2016 at 8:42
  • See Chapter 257 in the Shulchan Aruch HaRav (translation here: shulchanaruchharav.com/Home-Database/… )
    – Menachem
    Commented Aug 22, 2016 at 8:47
  • 1
    Any halachic work from at least a couple hundred years ago would deal explicitly with these issues. They didn't have electricity
    – Double AA
    Commented Aug 22, 2016 at 13:32

1 Answer 1


You need to be aware of the halochos of hatmono (=insulating food), see below extracted from dinonline. I suggest you read the whole article and then CYLOR.

There are two ways of insulating food:

מוסיף הבל – Insulating with something that increases heat.

אינו מוסיף הבל – Insulating with something that retains the heat.

מוסיף הבל – Insulation that Adds Heat Burning ash was the most commonly used item to insulate food. Chazal forbade this type of insulation out of concern that one may come to stoke the ashes which have in them burning coals to keep them alight for longer  Anything that positively adds heat was included in the prohibition and may not  be used for insulating purposes. Since the concern is that one may come to stoke these materials at any moment (not just prior to the insulation), the concern applies as long as they are being used. Thus, a pot may not be insulated with these materials even before Shabbos.

אינו מוסיף הבל If one were to insulate a pot on Shabbos with something that does not add heat, but retains the heat, he may notice before doing the hatmana that the food is not as hot as he wishes it to be, and Chazal were concerned that he may come to heat it up on Shabbos, thus transgressing the melacha of cooking. Since the concern is that one may come to heat up the pot of food prior to its insulation, the concern is only applicable on Shabbos itself. However, when done before Shabbos there is no room for concern since then he is permitted to heat up the pot before insulating it since it is not yet Shabbos. Therefore, on Erev Shabbos, a pot may be insulated with towels or blankets to keep it warm

Practical Cases

In order for hatmana to be forbidden, four conditions must be present:

הטמנה לגמרי – it must be fully wrapped,

בכלי ראשון – the food must be in its original pot,

כוונה – one must have intention to insulate it,

נוגע בקדירה – the covering/wrapping must touch the pot/food.

If ALL of the above conditions are present, it is considered hatmana and it is forbidden. However, if even ONE of the above conditions is missing, it is not considered hatmana and may be done even on Shabbos.

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