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I have seen various references that say that Parshas Voeschanan tells about the second set of tablets given to Moshe. E.g. Yeshiva.org.il says

צריך עיון במה שהזכרנו לעיל שהתורה אומרת " וכתבתי על הלחת את הדברים אשר היו על הלחת הראשונים אשר שברת", משמע ממש אותן הדברים, ולכאורה אנו מוצאים חלוק תיבות ופסוקים בין לוחות ראשונים האמורות בפרשת יתרו, ללוחות שניים האמורות בפרשת ואתחנן

Further study is needed into the possuk “And I will write on the luchos, the words that were on the first luchos that you broke”. This seems to imply that exactly the same words were written and it seems that we find differences between the first luchos in Parshas Yisro and the second luchos in Parshas Voeschanan (and of course there are several differences).

What is the evidence that says that the second luchos are referred to in Parshas Voeschanan?

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The Netziv proves this from what we say in Shaharis of Shabos: ושני לוחות אבנים הוריד בידו וכתוב בהם שמירת שבת.

The same concludes the Pesikta Rabasi (23) in which is mentioned the fact that in the first account of the Aseres haDibros says "Zachor" while in the second account says "Shamor":

זכור את יום השבת לקדשו הכא כתב זכור ולהלן שמור רבי יודן רבי אייבו בשם ר' שמעון בן לקיש למלך ששלח את בנו אצל החנוני ומסר לו איסר ונתן לו צלוחית שיבר את הצלוחית ואיבד את האיסר תלש באזנו ותלש בשערו ונתן לו פעם שנייה ואמר לו הזהר שלא תאבד את אילו כשם שאיבדת את הראשונות כך על ידי שאבדו ישראל זכור במדבר (לא) נתן להם שמור לכך נאמר זכור ושמור

The Pesikta Rabasi here points out that the word "keep" is used in order to teach that Israel was instructed that only through "keeping" the Shabbos would they succeed in "keeping" the 2nd luchos from being lost like the 1st luchos. Here, likewise, the implication is that the account of the Aseres haDibros in Voeschanan records the text of the 2nd luchos, while the account in Yisro describes the text of the 1st luchos.

  • Can you please quote the relevant words from the Pesikta Rabasi? – Avrohom Yitzchok Aug 21 '16 at 15:54
  • Relevant words from Pesikta now included in the answer. – Renato Grun Aug 22 '16 at 2:15
  • Note that most commentaries do not hold that there was a difference between the first and second set of Luchot [citation needed] – Menachem Aug 22 '16 at 3:52
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In clarifying the difference between the first and second luchos, the gemara in bava kama 55b highlights that the second luchos included the word "tov" while the first luchos did not. The word "yitav" a derivative of the word tov, is used in Parshas Va'eschanan when describing the reward of one who properly fulfills the commandment to honor one's parents, while in Parshas Yisro, this word is omitted.

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