How are we permitted to say the refuah shelema request on shabbath, as it is contrary to the spirit of shabbath? how come it is allowed on shabbath, when middle 13 blessings of amidah are omitted? What is the halachic reasoning to it?
Who says we are permitted to? AFAIK prayer for sick people on Shabbat is a Machloket Rishonim (at least in Ashkenaz): one side says you can pray for a sick person if they are at risk of dying that day, and the other side forbids it even then.– Double AA ♦Aug 9, 2016 at 15:44
or judaism.stackexchange.com/questions/27485/…– Avrohom YitzchokAug 9, 2016 at 17:20
why are some bakashot made... is not a dupe.– koutyAug 10, 2016 at 15:22
whad does "Shabbat hi miliz'ok" also is not a dupe. I do not undedrstand Refua shlema is an independent topik and this is not asked and not andwered. in the 2 poste regarded as similar– koutyAug 10, 2016 at 15:24
@kouty, the content of the bakashot question is arguably a dupe (I agree with you - I think it is too incidental in that question, but it is not clear cut), as that question encompasses "requests during the Torah service - e.g., mishebeirach"– YishaiAug 10, 2016 at 16:15
Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 287, 1:
א יְכוֹלִים לְנַחֵם אֲבֵלִים בְּשַׁבָּת, וְכֵן יְכוֹלִים לְבַקֵּר אֶת הַחוֹלֶה. וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ כַּדֶּרֶךְ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ בַּחֹל, אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ: שַׁבָּת הִיא מִלִּזְעֹק וּרְפוּאָה קְרוֹבָה לָבֹא, וְרַחֲמָיו מְרֻבִּים וְשִׁבְתּוֹ בְּשָׁלוֹם. הגה: וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים דְּאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר וְרַחֲמָיו מְרֻבִּים, וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ (רַמְבַּ''ם פֶּרֶק כ''ד).
He should not tell him the same words as in Chol but he would say Shabbat He Miliz'ok Urfua Kerova Lavo (Cryind aside, the guerison, recovery is comming up) ...
The source is in gemara Shabbat 12a, Rashi explains that the purpose is to avoid to feel sorry for (somebody). Bet Shamay prohibited to visit the sick because you need to make this an other day, and Shabbat you cannot continue to fulfill your obligations. Beth Hillel allowed because this type of duty is a duty toward Heaven, not for yourself. But we need to be aware to not feel sorry.
When someone implores G-d mercy for the sick, he suffer and cry. This should be avoided.
But for a sick in life threatening situation, the Halacha, following Mishna Taanit (in Bavli 19a) is that we need to pray. So, all the above is only for a sick in a mild to moderate situation. See this stated in SA OC 288, 10
For the OP itself, the Magen Avraham at this Siman, sk 14 asked it: Why we are accustomed to leave the Hazan to pray that G-d will bless the sick (even in non life threatening situation)... and concluding "Yshlach Lo Refuah Shelema"? He answered that this is perhaps a custom based on the opinion of Ramban, who pasked in Shabbat 12b as Rabbi Yossi who was praying in Shabbat "May the Omnipresent have compassion upon you in the midst of the sick of Israel."; it is equivalent to saying Refuah Shlema. (Rambam and SA pasken as TK). But MA adds that it is right to add Shabbat he miliz'ok... as mentionned by Rabbi Yossi itself.