1) One way is to learn halacha - I don't mean just going through halacha books or even the Mishna Brurah,
but rather learning the earlier sources in depth,
understanding the underlying principles, until you get to later poskim and practical psak.
Being knowledgeable in a particular area of practical Halacha feels like a tangible outcome in that you can use it practically.
Also, just knowing that you know the ins and outs of a segment of halacha feels great.
2) Another way is to give a shiur (or even write a book/sefer) - don't dismiss this idea so quickly!! It will not only force you to learn more effectively and accurately in preparation, but will also result in a tangible accomplishment.
I know someone personally who gave a weekly shiur primarily in order to bolster his own learning, and ended up writing a book based on the material from the shiur!
3) If you feel accomplished when doing excercise because you know you are ensuring your health and fit body,
you should feel similarly regarding learning and your soul - there are many sources that indicate that Torah is very, very good for your soul.
Perhaps learning sforim/sources that talk about the benefits Torah learning has on oneself would help you attain that 'tangible outcome' feeling when you learn.
4) The following is translated from a letter of the Steipler Gaon (Krina Di'igrsa vol. 2 letter 3):
"The main advice for achieving a sweet feeling from learning is understanding it deeply. And you must specifically learn with a good chaver and not in solitude. When you do find yourself learning alone, speak out with your mouth in a way you yourself understand all the details of what you learned: 'This Tanna's opinion is this, that Tanna's opinion is that, and their reasoning is such-and-such, and Rashi explains it like this, and Tosfos explain it like that, and this is the reason Tosfos disagrees with Rashi', etc. etc......over the course of time you will acquire the sweetness of Torah in large measure, but do not expect it to come immediately or in a short time, for all beginnings are difficult....and you should know that more beloved is one time with pain than a hundred times without pain as it says in Avos DR"N chapter 3 - and all the siyata dishmaya you merit to achieve is by virtue of [initially] learning with pain.....and you should know that you will be compensated over the course of time - no pain or effort on your part will be for naught....you need to pray with your whole heart to beseech God...that you should attain the sweetness of Torah, and that you should have a good and appropriate study partner, and that you should have siyata dshmaya - all this you should pray for after Shmoneh Esrei after the verse of 'yihyu lratzon...' every day. And a prayer that comes from the depth of the heart does not return empty-handed, 'for God is close to all who call out to him...truthfully' "