As noted by @Danno, Avoth 5:10 encapsulates the concept very tersely:
אַרְבַּע מִדּוֹת בָּאָדָם. הָאוֹמֵר שֶׁלִּי שֶׁלִּי וְשֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁלָּךְ, זוֹ מִדָּה בֵינוֹנִית. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, זוֹ מִדַּת סְדוֹם. שֶׁלִּי שֶׁלְּךָ וְשֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁלִּי, עַם הָאָרֶץ. שֶׁלִּי שֶׁלְּךָ וְשֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁלָּךְ, חָסִיד. שֶׁלִּי שֶׁלִּי וְשֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁלִּי, רָשָׁע:
There are four temperaments among men: the one who says "what is mine is mine, and what is yours is yours" -- that's an [average] temperament. And there are some who say that is the temperament of Sodom. [A second type is one who says] "what is mine is yours, and what is yours is mine" -- [that's an] am ha'arets (uneducated person). [A third type is one who says] "what is mine is yours, and what is yours is yours" -- [that's a] pious person. [A final type is one who says] "what is yours is mine, and what is mine is mine" -- [that's a] wicked person.
The first part ("what is mine is mine, and what is yours is yours") seems to be a debate about the merits of libertarianism, while the second ("what is mine is yours, and what is yours is mine") encapsulates socialist values, which the Tanna describes as a simplistic worldview.
Nonetheless, it is very clear from the overall tone of the mishna, as well as more broadly from Tanach and Chazal, that "social justice" or caring for the poor, is a major and unanimously accepted theme of Judaism, and halacha demands charity and collects it by force as necessary.