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I'm not for sure but there seem to be prayers to show one's ahava (love), shevach (praise) and hoda'a (thanksgiving). There seem to be prayers about techina (supplication), bekasha (beseech, request). And there are prayers like vidui (confession), teshuvah (repentance)... and probably there are more forms of prayer.

But what i would like to know; because prayer these days (at least in the world and other religions) seems to be about asking; what is it that one can pray for (except from the things mentioned)? - things like peace, personal needs, etc?

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As long as it is for something that did not happen yet, you can pray for it. So for example if one hears about some disaster that killed people, he should not pray saying "let it not be such and such a person that was killed" for that already happened (Mishna Berachot, see there for examples of what to pray for).

Other than that, "Open your mouth wide and I will fill it" (Tehilim 81:10), the more the better.

Rabbi Yehonotan Eibshutz composed a work on intent in the Shemonei Esrei. There he writes (on shema koleinu section): "In it one should put all his aspirations to G-d, to pray for all his needs even for a small thing or (all the more so) a large one do not perform anything that you didn't pray for to G-d first.."

  • Perhaps it will be better if you quote the Mishna, I remember that there is also a Yerushalmi (need verification.) – kouty Jun 13 '16 at 6:23
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A person can pray about anything as a source I will bring Rabbi Zusha that prayed that he is cold and will be happy if Hashem can make it hotter when he was in a Succah... in the link here you can find Rabbi Karlibach speaking about this story.

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    Appropriately "Karlibach" in Hebrew (קר לי בך) is "I'm cold in you[f.]", as R' Zusha might have said to his Succah :-) – Noam D. Elkies Jun 13 '16 at 3:57

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