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I have heard strong concurrence among Jews that Jewish inheritance is passed only through the father to their sons, more specifically that the throne could only be passed through sons.

In my research, I find that Jews in Scriptural accounts understood the inheritance to pass through sons. (I have learned so much!)

There did arise, however, an unusual case, at which point counsel was sought from God, and God spoke allowing for inheritance to be passed to daughters under specific and clear circumstances and conditions (see below).

Originally there was not a royal line of kingship. As one member here pointed out, the throne passed from Saul to David. But then God established that David's line would reign forever. So, it seems to necessitate that the throne be passed through David's line.

Does Jewish tradition reflect merely on the general rule, not focusing on or even not realizing the latter exception? If the Jews do not apply the latter exception to the royal line, on what premise do they do so.

Numbers 27:6-8

6The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:
ווַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
7Zelophehad's daughters speak justly. You shall certainly give them a portion of inheritance along with their father's brothers, and you shall transfer their father's inheritance to them.
זכֵּן בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד דֹּבְרֹת נָתֹן תִּתֵּן לָהֶם אֲחֻזַּת נַחֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אֲבִיהֶם וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ אֶת נַחֲלַת אֲבִיהֶן לָהֶן:
8Speak to the children of Israel saying: If a man dies and has no son, you shall transfer his inheritance to his daughter.
חוְאֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ כִּי יָמוּת וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ וְהַעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת נַחֲלָתוֹ לְבִתּוֹ:
9If he has no daughter, you shall give over his inheritance to his brothers.
טוְאִם אֵין לוֹ בַּת וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת נַחֲלָתוֹ לְאֶחָיו:

Numbers 36:6

Land as an inheritance through lot to the children of Israel, and our master was commanded by the Lord to give the inheritance of Zelophehad our brother to his daughters.
בוַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶת אֲדֹנִי צִוָּה יְהֹוָה לָתֵת אֶת הָאָרֶץ בְּנַחֲלָה בְּגוֹרָל לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאדֹנִי צֻוָּה בַיהֹוָה לָתֵת אֶת נַחֲלַת צְלָפְחָד אָחִינוּ לִבְנֹתָיו: 3Now, if they marry a member of another tribe of the children of Israel, their inheritance will be diminished from the inheritance of our father, and it will be added to the inheritance of the tribe into which they marry, and thus, it will be diminished from the lot of our inheritance.
גוְהָיוּ לְאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי שִׁבְטֵי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָשִׁים וְנִגְרְעָה נַחֲלָתָן מִנַּחֲלַת אֲבֹתֵינוּ וְנוֹסַף עַל נַחֲלַת הַמַּטֶּה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶינָה לָהֶם וּמִגֹּרַל נַחֲלָתֵנוּ יִגָּרֵעַ:
4Even if the children of Israel will have a Jubilee, their inheritance will be added to the inheritance of the tribe into which they marry, and their inheritance will be diminished from the inheritance of our father's tribe."
דוְאִם יִהְיֶה הַיֹּבֵל לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנוֹסְפָה נַחֲלָתָן עַל נַחֲלַת הַמַּטֶּה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶינָה לָהֶם וּמִנַּחֲלַת מַטֵּה אֲבֹתֵינוּ יִגָּרַע נַחֲלָתָן:
5Moses commanded the children of Israel according to the word of the Lord, saying, "The tribe of Joseph's descendants speak justly.
הוַיְצַו משֶׁה אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל פִּי יְהֹוָה לֵאמֹר כֵּן מַטֵּה בְנֵי יוֹסֵף דֹּבְרִים:
6This is the word that the Lord has commanded regarding Zelophehad's daughters. Let them marry whomever they please, but they shall marry only to the family of their father's tribe.
וזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה לִבְנוֹת צְלָפְחָד לֵאמֹר לַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵיהֶם תִּהְיֶינָה לְנָשִׁים אַךְ לְמִשְׁפַּחַת מַטֵּה אֲבִיהֶם תִּהְיֶינָה לְנָשִׁים:
7Thus, the inheritance of the children of Israel will not be transferred from tribe to tribe, for each person from the children of Israel will remain attached to the inheritance of his father's tribe.
זוְלֹא תִסֹּב נַחֲלָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמַּטֶּה אֶל מַטֶּה כִּי אִישׁ בְּנַחֲלַת מַטֵּה אֲבֹתָיו יִדְבְּקוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:

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Zelofchad daughters are not an exception but a kind of Jurisprudence from the creator itself. It is source for regular halacha as in the bellow quoted Mishna BB 8, 2:

סֵדֶר נְחָלוֹת כָּךְ הוּא, (במדבר כז) אִישׁ כִּי יָמוּת וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ, וְהַעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת נַחֲלָתוֹ לְבִתּוֹ, בֵּן קוֹדֵם לַבַּת, וְכָל יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ שֶׁל בֵּן קוֹדְמִין {יד} לַבַּת. בַּת קוֹדֶמֶת לָאַחִין. יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכָהּ שֶׁל בַּת, קוֹדְמִין לָאַחִין. אַחִין קוֹדְמִין לַאֲחֵי הָאָב. יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכָן שֶׁל אַחִין, קוֹדְמִין לַאֲחֵי הָאָב. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם בַּנַּחֲלָה, יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ קוֹדְמִין. וְהָאָב קוֹדֵם לְכָל יוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ: ‏

The order of succession is as follows: if a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter. A son takes precedence over a daughter`all lineal descendants of a son take precedence over a daughter. A daughter takes precedence over the brothers.Lineal descendants of a daughter [also] take precedence over the brothers. Brothers take precedence over the brothers of the father.lineal descendants of brothers [also] take precedence over the brothers of the father. This is the general rule: The lineal descendants of any one with a priority to succession take precedence.a father takes precedence over all his descendants.

This jurisprudence do perhaps not contains kingdom.

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