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The verse on the Ten commandments, also read in Kidusha Raba by certains (Exodus 20, 8-9) says

שֵׁ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד וְעָשִׂ֖יתָ כָּל-מְלַאכְתֶּֽךָ: וְיוֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י שַׁבָּ֖ת לַֽיהוָֹ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹא-תַֽעֲשֶׂ֨ה כָל-מְלָאכָ֜ה אַתָּ֣ה | וּבִנְךָ֣-וּבִתֶּ֗ךָ עַבְדְּךָ֤ וַֽאֲמָֽתְךָ֙ וּבְהֶמְתֶּ֔ךָ וְגֵֽרְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ: ‏

Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;
Is there a factor of merit to observe and rest on Shabbat? If people don't labor and work throughout the six days of the week, do they deserve Shabbat?

What about people who are unemployed and idle -- but "idle" in the sense that, even though have degrees and are very well qualified for work in several fields, they simply haven't found employment opportunities for many months, due to the jobs market's high competition and saturation? Do they have to find some kind of "work" in order to "deserve" Shabbat?

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    You should feel free to bring in some of the context in the question to help give answerers the full background and target their answer even more. You can edit here. – mbloch May 2 '16 at 4:34
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    Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/29218/1713 – Daniel May 2 '16 at 10:16
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    I need help for the number of the verses 8-9 or 9-10? – kouty May 2 '16 at 14:45
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    @kouty Chapter breaks are Christian, so the count of verses is essentiall arbitrary as far as Judaism is concerned. However, given the verse וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים, אֵת כָּל-הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר as a starting point, the relevant verses are numbered 8-9 in old traditional Jewish texts. (Note historically some have mistakenly added a verse division when trying to disentangle the Taam Elyon and Taam Tachton notes, so you might see that mistake reflected even in some modern editions which would count these verses as 9-10.) – Double AA May 3 '16 at 17:44
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    @kouty See oz-vehadar.com/content/upload/pdf/… oz-vehadar.com/content/upload/pdf/… oz-vehadar.com/content/upload/pdf/… for some of the history. There have been dozens of variations over the last 600 years of people trying to figure it out, but the oldest manuscripts we have available now are quite clear what was original. – Double AA May 3 '16 at 18:21
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Without commenting on the specific situation, shabbat's rest is an absolute obligation which doesn't depend on what one does during the week. Whether one worked or rested during the work, one needs to abstain from creative work (melacha) on shabbat. Shabbat is not observed because it is a reward but because God commanded so, as a memory for the creation of the world.

The issue of idleness (that you bring in the comments) is interesting. Judaism puts quite some emphasis on avoiding bitul zman (wasting one's time). As we say in the prayer Uva Lzion every day (translation Artscroll)

May He (God) open our heart to his Torah and imbue our heart with awe and love of him and the desire to do his will and to serve him with a wholesome heart so that we do not toil in vain nor produce for futility (see also Isaiah 65:23).

To bring both topics together, one interesting idea I heard about shabbat is that the laws of shabbat are modeled after the laws of the creation of the sanctuary (mishkan) in the desert. Technically because the verses commanding shabbat are juxtaposed with the creation of the mishkan (Shemot 31). But more fundamentally because, just as God stopped His work (creating a home for man in the world) after six days, man stops his work after six days. What is man's primary work? Creating a home for God in the world, through Torah and mitzvot (commandments). I now saw a similar idea much more beautifully described here by R Asher Meir.

So idleness (bitul zman), in the sense of not learning Torah and performing mitzvot, is definitely something to improve on, even if shaming people in public is definitely not the way.

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    thanks vary much for the answer, @mbloch ! Much helpful indeed! Shalom Shalom everyone! :) – Natan May 2 '16 at 20:25
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The "work" forbidden on Shabbat does not mean hard, physical work or employment. It is "melacha" = creative work. There are 39 main categories of melacha http://halachipedia.com/index.php?title=Index_of_Laws_of_Shabbat_by_the_39_Melachot

So, even if Shabbat would be a "reward" for working the other 6 days (and there is no mention of this - every Jew is obligated to keep Shabbat), that would mean it is a reward for doing "melacha" e.g. writing, selection (throwing out the bad apples in the bag), cooking (heating water in a kettle for a cup of coffee) etc.

Also, "by the sweat of your brow shall you eat bread" (Genesis 3:19) is a curse, not a commandment. And a person does not need to work physically to accomplish things.

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I do not understand what you are saying synagogues and congratulations

But for part 2 you are probably referring to the saying of our sages

Avoda Zara 3a

The nations will then plead. 'Offer us the Torah anew and we shall obey it.' But the Holy One, blessed be He, will say to them, 'You foolish ones among peoples, he who took trouble [to prepare] on the eve of the Sabbath can eat on the Sabbath, but he who has not troubled on the eve of the Sabbath, what shall he eat on the Sabbath? 

On the other hand we see that shabbos is for those that do not work
As can be seen from the verse Exodus.20.9 that to work for 6 days is a separate "obligation" from shabbos

We also see this in the laws of muktza (a rabbinic law) on shabos that one of the reasons given for this rabbinic decree is

Rambam shabbos 24.13

...[Another reason for this prohibition is] that there are some people who are not craftsmen and are always idle - e.g., tourists (rich people) and those that stand on the street corners. These individuals never perform labor. Were they to be allowed to walk, talk, and carry as they do during the week, the result would be that their cessation of activity on [the Sabbath] would not be discernible. For this reason, [our Sages instituted] refraining from such activities, for the cessation of such activities is universally applicable.
These are the reasons for the restrictions against carrying [objects]. The Sages forbade a person from carrying on the Sabbath, with the exception of articles that he requires, as will be explained

Shabos is not only for the person it is also for G-d and by keeping if we affirm that the world was created by G-d (in 7 days) see simla chadasha 2.16

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    @Natan (if you click the up arrow and check mark I get points) From my understanding of the Torah, it is not a problem not to work if you have a livelihood, but you are obligated to learn Torah and not be idle, but it is a big problem if someone is living off of donations, (having a graduation does not change this in anyway) – hazoriz May 2 '16 at 18:22
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    @Natan The problem with donations has nothing to do with synagogue, if they get them from other places it is still a problem, (if they can be making a living and are not) they should learning Torah in their free time. I do not see it a Jewish idea that men need to be working, in Judaism even if you are working in a job with a boss you are like a slave (it is not good for Jews to be a slave), but you need to get parnasa somehow. maybe they are calling them lazy because they want their children to not copy them but I do not see this as a Jewish way – hazoriz May 2 '16 at 19:58
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    I can bring you sources for the ideas I bring you if you ask for it – hazoriz May 2 '16 at 20:00
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    @Natan for what idea/s – hazoriz May 2 '16 at 20:21
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    @Natan I asked judaism.stackexchange.com/q/70913/5120 from the answers that will hopefully come we will see if I am correct and if there is a difference between the type of employment (I guess that you are not like a slave only if the hours are not set (you can chose what time to work)). Regarding lashon harah we try to judge people favorably, it is not good (may be it is lashon hara) for a Jew to say that other Jews are saying lashon harah , the only point of an answer to your question is if you are asking if you should act this way or not, but it seems you hold that you should not, – hazoriz May 3 '16 at 12:29

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