I'm new to this, can you please very briefly explain what these terms mean:

  • Shinui,
  • Makkeh Befatish,
  • Besh'as Hadehaq,
  • Shvut D'Shvut,

Thanks in advance

  • judaism.stackexchange.com/questions/29083/…
    – rosends
    Commented Apr 28, 2016 at 15:02
  • Not exactly sure what youre new to @M C B. These terms dont have much connection except they had to do with shabbos. I myself dont know what youre third term is.
    – newcomer
    Commented Apr 28, 2016 at 15:18
  • maybe a better reading.... shaas hadchak. i'm new to this website, they don't have any connection, just want to know what they mean
    – M C B
    Commented Apr 28, 2016 at 15:19
  • Where did you see these words? Context might help someone identify them. Have you tried any sort of dictionary? Have you tried googling them? Googling "Shinui" and "Shvut D'Shvut" yield a lot of seemingly relevant results.
    – Double AA
    Commented Apr 28, 2016 at 16:24
  • 3rd one probably should be b'sha'at had'chak
    – rosends
    Commented Apr 28, 2016 at 18:32

2 Answers 2

  1. Shinui - a labor done on shabbat in an irregular manner such as backhanded. A way the labor isn't done.

  2. Makkah B'patish - the final blow (of a hammer) - any form of completion which renders an item usable falls under this umbrella.

  3. Bshas Hadchak - extenuating circumstances, sometimes the halacha will allow certain things under extenuating circumstances.

  4. Shvus d'shvus - If one asks a non-Jew to perform a Rabbanic(however,see the Rama in 307)labor which is forbidden on shabbat for a sake of a mitzvah then this is a case of shvus dshvus (which means two rabbinic prohibitions) . Asking a non- Jew is one Rabbinic violation and the non-Jew doing the act for you is another Rabbinic Prohibition. In a case of a mitzvah it can be permitted.

These are just short explanations, and there is much more that can be detailed, but that's it in a nutshell.

  • "Asking a non- Jew is one Rabbinic violation and the non-Jew doing the act for you is another Rabbinic Prohibition." Is a wrong, the law is Regarding getting a non Jew to do a violation which itself is rabbinic, if it would be biblical that it is one rabbinic (one shvus) getting a goy to do it and one biblical the violation
    – hazoriz
    Commented May 2, 2016 at 14:51
  • Not so simple, even though I did mean a rabbinic prohibition since that is the general accepted rule,but please see the Rama in this halacha תו בשבת אלא משום שבות מותר לישראל לומר לאינו יהודי לעשותו בשבת והוא שיהיה שם מקצת חולי או יהיה צריך לדבר צורך הרבה או מפני מצוה כיצד אומר ישראל לאינו יהודי בשבת לעלות באילן להביא שופר לתקוע תקיעת מצוה או להביא מים דרך חצר שלא עירבו לרחוץ בו המצטער ויש אוסרין. הגה: ולקמן סימן תקפ''ז פסק להתיר ועיין לעיל סימן רע''ו דיש מקילין אפילו במלאכה דאורייתא ועיין שם סעיף ג':
    – sam
    Commented May 2, 2016 at 16:09
  • Like mentioned in my answer these concepts are quite complex,and I answered them in the most simplistic manner without going through all the opinions which would take up many many paragraphs
    – sam
    Commented May 2, 2016 at 16:11
  • 1
    @hazoriz I have edited accordingly
    – sam
    Commented May 2, 2016 at 16:14
  • I am ready to learn I see the ramo but how do you see that a anoi Yehudi doing a diorisa for a Jew is called a shvus dshvus?
    – hazoriz
    Commented May 2, 2016 at 19:17

Literally change,
it usually refers to when a labor that it forbidden to be performed on shabos is performed in an unusual way (not the way done during the week (ie the most efficient/easy way)).
Ah 328.12 Ah 321.16

Makkeh Befatish
Literally A (final (special important)) hit with a hammer (of the blacksmith eather to flatten the object or to flatten the hammer).
One of the 39 forbidden labors
Practically it is the finishing of the object the first time (ie they used to sow the collar of shirts to keep the shape when they make them and sell them with the thread, to cut the thread for the first time will be a violation of this).
Harav 314

Besh'as Hadehaq
Literally In a of pressure.
Usually used to indicate that a spesific rabbinic law or stringency is not applicable (was not decreed) in a situation of pressure (what is considered pressure in my understanding is decided by the Rabbi)

Shvut D'Shvut An act that is forbidden only rabbinicaly, which is done (indirectly) through another rabbincly forbidden act (ie through a non Jew).
Ah 307.5

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