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After looking into the Pesach story, i found that there was the first Pesach, the one in which HaShem brought us out of Egypt (mostly described in Shemot 12), a commemoration/memorial of it every year in the same period and the Pesach Sheni (the first and the nexts).

Are there any commentaries on the differences between the rituals of the offering of the Pesach offerings?

  • I can't tell how many you're listing. Is it: (1) the real Pesach, the one in which HaShem brought us out of Egypt (mostly described in Shemot 12), (2) a commemoration/memorial of it and (3) the Pesach Sheni? Or (1) the real Pesach, (2) the one in which HaShem brought us out of Egypt (mostly described in Shemot 12), (3) a commemoration/memorial of it and (4) the Pesach Sheni? Or (1) the real Pesach, the one in which HaShem brought us out of Egypt (mostly described in Shemot 12), a commemoration/memorial of it and (2) the Pesach Sheni? Or what? – msh210 Mar 29 '16 at 20:56
  • It seems that the OP wonder about 2 differences of Pessach, Mitsraym v/s dorot, Rishon v/s Sheni. in this case, 2 mishnayot are in concern 9, 3 & 9, 5 @DoubleAA – kouty Mar 29 '16 at 20:59
  • I'm sorry, i found it quite difficult to find the correct words, @kouty was correct, p.s. feel free to edit. – Levi Mar 30 '16 at 6:50
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See Tal. Pesachim 9:3

In brief, both had to have the lamb roasted and they were eaten with bitter herbs and matzah. Hallel I srecited for both while they are offered. Both are offered on Shabbat.

Some differences regarding Pesach Sheini vs. Pesach:

  • Hallel is not recited while the lamb is eaten
  • Chametz is allowed to be in the house
  • see my comment above – kouty Mar 29 '16 at 20:59
  • @kouty Yes, I do see your point. I focused on just the ending question, though. – DanF Mar 29 '16 at 21:26
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After looking into the Pesach story, i found that there was the first Pesach, the one in which HaShem brought us out of Egypt (mostly described in Shemot 12), a commemoration/memorial of it every year in the same period

The answer of DanF (quoting Mishna Pessachim 9,3) is about the difference between the first (14 Nissan) and the second (14 Yiar). I will go into this through the Sifre debeRav in the second part of the answer.

We start with differencies between Egypt's and Generation's Passover-Offerings and Chamets prohibition.

FIRST PART: Passover in Egypt vs Passover in subsequent generations

I want to try an answer through a reading of the Mechilta deRashbi (this midrash is quoted by rishonim, particularly Ramban) and not the Mishna (9, 5) to show the link with verses.
The presentation is an Hebrew text with annotations, but the non Hebraist can read the notes as a linear text, after reading the verse in English. Redundancies or multiplicity of drashot for a same law are elided.

  1. AQUISITION DATE Exodus 12, 6

    דַּבְּרוּ, אֶל-כָּל-עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר, בֶּעָשֹׂר, לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה: וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם, אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית-אָבֹת--שֶׂה לַבָּיִת

    Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers' houses, a lamb for a household

    ‏ בעשור לחודש הזה ויקחו להם, מלמד שפסח מצרים מקחו מבעשור.יכול אף פסח דורות מקחו מבעשור תלמוד לומר הזה. פסח מצרים מקחו מבעשור ואין פסח דורות מקחו מבעשור.אוציא פסח ראשון ולא אוציא פסח שני? תלמוד לומר והיה לכם למשמרת עד ארבעה עשר לחודש הזה; פסח ראשון מקחו מבעשור ואין פסח שני מקחו במעשור‏[1]‏. ‏

  2. HOW MUST IT BE EATEN Exodus 12, 11

    וְכָכָה, תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ--מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים, נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם; וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן, פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה

    And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste--it is the LORD'S passover

    ‏ וככה תאכלו אותו ואכלתם אותו בחיפזון, בבהילות יוצאי דרכים. אין לי אלא אכילתו שהיא בחיפזון מנין לרבות קיבול דמו וזריקת דמו תלמוד לומר וככה. יכול שאני מרבה את צלייתו והדחת קרביו, תלמות לומר ככה, ככה. אותו, אותו בחיפזון ואין פסח דורות בחיפזון‏ [2] ‏. ‏

  3. BLOOD SPRINGLING WITH HYSSOP AROUND THE DOOR Exodus 12, 24

    וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם, אֶת-הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, לְחָק-לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ, עַד-עוֹלָם

    And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever

    ‏ ושמרתם את הדבר הזה, שמור מצוה האמורה בענין, יכול אף אגודת אזוב ומשקוף ושתי מזוזות, תלמוד לומר הזה‏ [3] ‏ לחוק לך ולבניך עד עולם, שינהג הדבר לדורות ‏

  4. A LAMB FOR A HOUSEHOLD Exodus 12, 47 (from Mechilta deRabbi Yishmael, see Rashi at this verse)

    כָּל-עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ

    All the congregation of Israel shall keep it

    ‏ כל עדת ישראל - למה נאמר? לפי שהוא אומר: משכו וקחו לכם צאן, כשם שפסח מצרים אינו כשר אלא למשפחה, אף פסח דורות אינו כשר אלא למשפחה?! תלמוד לומר: כל עדת ישראל מגיד שפסח בא בערבוביה‏ [4] ‏ ‏

  5. NUMBER OF DAYS OF CHAMETS PROHIBITION Exodus 13, 3-4 Mechilta deRashbi again

    וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל-הָעָם, זָכוֹר אֶת-הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר יְצָאתֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים, כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד, הוֹצִיא יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה; וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל, חָמֵץ. הַיּוֹם, אַתֶּם יֹצְאִים, בְּחֹדֶשׁ, הָאָבִיב

    And Moses said unto the people: 'Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place; there shall no leavened bread be eaten. This day ye go forth in the month Abib.

    ‏ ולא יאכל חמץ (במצרים) היום; ואפילו לכלבים הרי זה בא לאוסרו בהנאה. רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר מנין לחמץ שלא נאסר במצרים אלא יום אחד? תלמוד לומר ולא יאכל חמץ היום‏ [5] ‏. (במכילתא דרבי ישמעאל ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר לא יאכל חמץ היום, מגיד שלא אכלו ישראל מצה במצרים אלא יום אחד בלבד. ) ‏


[1] The Passover-offering of Egypt can be taken only from the date of the 10 of the month (it was the month of Nissan, called the Spring month, or the first month in Torah.) because as writen "In the tenth day of this (this particular month and not the 'generic') month". This P-o should be monitored up to the 14 of the same month, so it is not the second P-o. Conclusion The other Passover-offerings (the first P-o of subsequent generations and the second P-o (of the 14 Yiar)) can be taken anytime, including before the tenth day of the month.
[2] It in haste and not P-o of generations in haste.
[3] "this thing ..for ever", the word this restricts, not all things, this come to exclude blood springling with a bunch of hyssop on the lintel and on the two door posts and includes the species: sheep and goats
[4] P-o of Egypt need familial group only, but P-o of generation can be mixed group people
[5] I might go into a little more detail from Tossefta Pessachim Chapter 8 at his end. Tana Kama deTossefta thinks that Egyptian Pessach is for 7 days as Generations Pessach, regarding Hamets. But Rabbi Yossi Haglili says that E.P is one day only. The stam Mishna follows the advice of Rabbi Yossi Haglili, see the Gemara (28B, 96B)


SECOND PART: 'First' Passover vs 'Second' Passover

  1. OVERRIDING THE UNCLEANNESS Numbers 9, 3

    ‏ בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר-יוֹם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם, תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ--בְּמֹעֲדוֹ; כְּכָל-חֻקֹּתָיו וּכְכָל-מִשְׁפָּטָיו, תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ. ‏

    In the fourteenth day of this month, at dusk, ye shall keep it in its appointed season; according to all the statutes of it, and according to all the ordinances thereof, shall ye keep it.

    ‏ פסח ראשון שדוחה את השבת אינו דין שידחה טומאה. הרי פסח שני יוכיח,[במועדו] אלא בא הכתוב ולימד על פסח ראשון שכשם שדוחה את השבת כך דוחה את הטומאה. הא עד שלא יאמר יש לי בדין, ומה פרה שאינה דוחה את השבת דוחה טומאה, שדוחה את השבת ואינו דוחה את הטומאה והוא יוכיח לפסח ראשון שאע”פ שדוחה את השבת לא ידחה את הטומאה. ת”ל במועדו ‏[6]‏ בא הכתוב ולימד על פסח ראשון שכשם שדוחה את השבת כך דוחה את הטומאה. ‏


[6] "in its appointed season", the first Pessach overrides uncleanness as it overrides the Sabbath, but the second do not overrides the uncleanness (In Gemara there is a Machloket) ‏[]

  • yes the answers so far are helpfull, thank you for asking. – Levi Apr 1 '16 at 20:19
  • the answers so far are helpful, it's just interesting to see how HaShem gave certain rules regarding the commemoration in comparison to the commandments regarding the first Pesach in Mitzrayim. There's the Pesach lamb described in Shemot 12 that teaches it had to be eaten within a household and isn't specifically referred to as a sacrifice (although it really looks like one) and Devarim 16 which tells about the Pesach offer that is to be eaten in the place which HaShem will chose. In the same way rules within Bamidbar 9 refer to verses like Shemot 12:8 or 12:46 to show the similarities – Levi Apr 1 '16 at 20:39

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