The Meiri in his Seder ha-Kabbalah (which is the introduction to his commentary on Avot, Ofeq ed. pp. 45-47) says that:
ולפעמים היתה הנבואה מבררת להם כל תעלומה, כמו שידעת מדברי קצת חכמינו
השלימים שהנבואה תגיד השגות עיוניות לא יוכל העיון להשיגם כ״ש הסברא וכו'
אבל מ״מ הם היו נושאים ונותנים בדרכי ההקש והמדות והסברא להוציא לאור
תעלומותיהם, וכל זה באין מחלוקת ביניהם כלל, כי היו אז נמסרים לנביאים
וסרים אל משמעתם ונשמעים אליהם
Sometimes, prophecy would clarify hidden things, as you know from the words of our Sages that prophecy can reveal intellectual attainments which the intellect [alone] cannot, but nevertheless they would debate and discuss using the methods of comparison and logic. This is when there was no [irresolvable] dispute between them, for then they would in the hands of the prophets and turn to their words and listen to them.
Although the Meiri's intent in this passage is somewhat unclear, it seems that he takes the view that prophecy has a role in the halakhic process for those things which cannot be solved by ordinary means of halakhic reasoning. This is also the view of R. Chaim Yosef David Azulai (Chida) who in his Shem ha-Gedolim (under R. Yaakov he-Chasid) maintains that in a place where the Chachamim are unable to reach a consensus, the prophet can decide. Thus, according to some, there is a role for prophets within the halakhic process. (See also R. Reuven Margaliot's introduction to She'eilot u-Teshuvot Min ha-Shamayim.)
R. Tzadok ha-Kohen mi-Lublin, in many places in his writings, explains that there was a shift with the cessation of prophecy in the method of transmission of the oral Torah. Whereas during the era of prophets, the prophetic element was dominant, subsequently it was the intellectual attainment of the Sages which was the sole factor in determining halakha. See Yaakov Elman, "R. Tzadok Ha-Kohen on the History of Halakha." One source often cited by R. Tzadok is Seder Olam Rabbah 30: עד כאן היו נביאים מתנבאים ברוח הקדש, מכאן ואילך הט אזנך ושמע דברי חכמים, "until that point, prophets prophesied with divine spirit; from then on 'tilt your ear and heed the words of the sages' (Mishlei 27:17)" (also cited here).