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Near the end of Kiddush Levana, there is a request that says:

וִיהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהַי וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתַי לְמַלּאֹת פְּגִימַת הַלְּבָנָה, וְלאֹ יִהְיֶה בָּהּ שׁוּם מִעוּט, וִיהִי אוֹר הַלְּבָנָה כְּאוֹר הַחַמָּה וּכְאוֹר שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה קוֹדֶם מִעוּטָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּעַשֹ אֱלֹהִים אֶת שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים

My rough translation:

May it be your will, Lord, my G-d and G-d of my fathers to fill the blemish of the moon and there should be no lessening. And the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun and the light that it had during the 7 days of creation prior to its light being diminished, as is written (Genesis 1:16) "... the two great lights" (implying that both the sun and moon's lights were equal.)

This concept is based on a Midrash cited in Talmud Chulin 60b. In brief, the moon complained to G-d, "Is it possible that there should be two rulers in the sky?" Whereby G-d told the moon to make itself smaller.

My questions:

  • By making this request, aren't we, in a sense, recreating the initial "problem"?
  • Of more practical value, reading further in the Talmud page, G-d said that the moon will benefit because Israel will establish its calendar by its cycle. But, if the sun and moon were both in the sky with the same light, would that also, possibly diminish or eliminate its role as being the heavenly body used for Rosh Hodesh? From the Talmud's discussion, it seems as if this role were created because the moon's light was diminished, only.
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Assuming a non-literal understanding of this Midrash, I believe this end section of Kiddush Levana is making a reference to a slightly longer version of that Midrash which ends by stating that in the times of Mashiach, the moon will be restored to its full luminance. That being the case, I think this end section of Kiddush Levana can simply be read as a way of asking for G-d to hasten the coming of Mashiach.

However, in more direct response to your two ending point:

  • The moon's complaints were unfounded, therefore we are asking that G-d restore his creation to how he originally created it, resting on the notion that G-d's original creation was better than the weaker version of the moon we currently possess.
  • Whether the moon is more or less bright, appearing during the day or night, the function of the moon being used for Rosh Chodesh relates to the time it takes to orbit Earth (28.5 days), which would not be related to its brightness, therefore presumably would be unchanged.
  • Providing and / or linking sources to these ideas would strengthen the answer. – DanF Feb 22 '16 at 19:16
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In addition to the answer by @ezzi386 the completion of that request is that the sun is to be restored to the "light of creation". Thus, one meaning could be the moon becomes as bright as the sun is now and the sun would be increased to the original light of creation which was "ganuz"(hidden) for olam haba. Alternatively, this means that the moon would have the blemish caused by its jealousy repaired because the sin of jealousy will have been removed from the world and we would be able to have the "two great light" without any flaw (caused by a flaw in middos).

וִיהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה׳ אֱלֹהַי וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתַי לְמַלֹּאת פְּגִימַת הַלְּבָנָה, וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בָּהּ שׁוּם מִעוּט, וִיהִי אוֹר הַלְּבָנָה כְּאוֹר הַחַמָּה וּכְאוֹר שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה קוֹדֶם מִעוּטָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּעַשֹ אֱלֹהִים אֶת שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים

May it be Your will Hashem, my G‽D and my ancestors’ G‽D, to fulfill the blemish of the “white one” levanah (the moon), and may there be no diminishing at all in her; and may the light of the white one be like the light of the “hot one” ḥamah (the sun), and like the light of the seven days of beginning creation, like it was before she was diminished, as it says “And G‽D formed the two great lights.”7

  1. based on Talmud Ḥulin 60b; for a Kabbalistic interpretation see this article at astillsmallvoice.org

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