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Should you say a blessing on a tallit gadol when you are performing a task in a shul that requires it (e.g.: being hazzan for mincha or getting an aliyah during mincha) ?

Is there a difference if this is an ashekenazi bachur that doesn't usually wear a tallit gadol or a married man that has already put on the tallit gadol for shacharit?

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Assuming that your question asks in general, if one who has already made a blessing earlier in the day on either the tallit katan or the tallit gadol, the answer is in Shulchan Aruch OC 8.

He states that whenever there is a hefsek (interruption), one must make a new bracha on the tallit. I think Magen Avraham does mention a possible exception regarding the tallit katan that once per day is fine as he is wearing it all day, anyway. But the tallit gadol is not worn all day. Clearly, there is an interruption between Shacharit and Mincha that would require a new blessing.

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Bottom line it depends what you're putting it on for. From Dose of Halacha:

..The Mishna Berura (14:11) writes that when one borrows a friend’s Tallis to Daven for the Amud, one should make a Bracha. The Aruch Hashulchan (OC 91:2) and Kaf Hachaim (OC 147:4) write that one who receives an Aliya (or any other Kibbud) should wear a Tallis out of respect for the Tzibbur.

The Mishna Berura writes that if the Tallis belongs to the Shul, one should make a Bracha, as it has shared ownership. He brings different opinions, however, as to whether one should make a Bracha on a friend’s Tallis. In Biur Halacha he writes that it better to borrow a friend’s Tallis to avoid the Safek of having to make a Bracha, though brings an opinion that when one just wears it for a short time and doesn’t place the Tallis over one’s head, one doesn’t make a Bracha. The Kaf Hachaim (OC 14:14 quoting the Ben Ish Chai) also writes that it is best not to say a Bracha when only wearing it for an Aliyah, etc.

R’ Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichos Shlomo, Tefilla 12:20 n29) held that one only wears a Tallis when one’s called up on Shabbos and Yom Tov mornings. Many Ashkenaz shuls have the custom that those who get called up during the week and Shabbos Mincha also wear a Tallis. Due to the Safek involved as to whether one should make a Bracha, the custom developed that one doesn’t remove one’s Tallis straight away, thus necessitating a Bracha.

In conclusion, one always makes a Bracha when wearing one’s own Tallis during the day. The Mishna Berura brings various opinions about one who wears the Shul’s Tallis. While he writes that ideally one should make a Bracha, most follow the other Poskim, and don’t. If one does make a Bracha, he should wrap the Tallis around his head and keep the Tallis on for a bit longer. The best option for one who is called up for an Aliyah (on Shabbos morning) is to borrow a friend’s Tallis and not make a Bracha.

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